Anosmia is the lack of olfaction, or a loss of the sense of smell. It can be either temporary or permanent. A related term, hyposmia refers to a decrease in the ability to smell. Some people may be anosmic for one particular odor. This is called "specific anosmia" and may be genetically based. Anosmia can be diagnosed by doctors by using scratch-n-sniff odor tests or by using commonly available odors such as coffee, lemon, and cinnamon. more...
It should be emphazised that there are no more than 5 dictinctive tastes: salty, sour, sweet, bitter, and umami. The 10,000 different scents humans usually recognize are lost with the loss of olfaction.
A temporary loss of smell can be caused by a stuffy nose or infection. In contrast, a permanent loss of smell may be caused by death of olfactory receptor neurons in the nose, or by brain injury in which there is damage to the olfactory nerve or damage to brain areas that process smell (see olfactory system). The lack of the sense of smell at birth, usually due to genetic factors, is referred as congenital anosmia. Anosmia may be an early sign of degenerative brain diseases such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Another specific cause of permanent loss could be from damage to olfactory receptor neurons due to use of zinc based nasal sprays .
While termed as a disability, anosmia is often viewed in the medical field as a trivial problem. However, the condition can have a number of detrimental effects . Patients with anosmia may find food less appetizing. Loss of smell can also be dangerous because it hinders the detection of gas leaks, fire, and spoiled food. The common view of anosmia as trivial can make it more difficult for a patient to receive the same types of medical aid as someone who is blind, deaf, or mute.
Losing an established and sentimental smell memory (e.g. the smell of grass, of a toy, of a grandparent's attic, of a particular book, of loved ones, or of oneself) has been known to cause feelings of depression.
Loss of olfaction may lead to the loss of libido, even to the point of impotency, which often preoccupies younger male Anosmics.
Scientists involved in anosmia research include Richard Doty.
- Kallmann syndrome
- zinc deficiency
- Parkinson's disease
- Alzheimer's disease
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