Apraxia is a neurological disorder characterized by loss of the ability to execute or carry out learned (familiar) movements, despite having the desire and the physical ability to perform the movements. more...
The root word of Apraxia is praxis which is Greek for an act, work, or deed.
There are several types of apraxia including:
- limb-kinetic (inability to make fine, precise movements with a limb),
- ideomotor (inability to carry out a motor command),
- ideational (inability to create a plan for or idea of a specific movement),
- buccofacial or facial-oral (inability to carry out facial movements on command, i.e., lick lips, whistle, cough, or wink) - which is perhaps the most common form,
- verbal (difficulty coordinating mouth and speech movements),
- constructional (inability to draw or construct simple configurations),
- and oculomotor (difficulty moving the eyes).
Apraxia may be accompanied by a language disorder called aphasia.
Developmental Apraxia of Speech (DAS) presents in children who have no evidence of difficulty with strength or range of motion of the articulators, but are unable to execute speech movements because of motor planning and coordination problems. This is not to be confused with phonological impairments in children wtih normal coordination of the articulators during speech.
Symptoms of Acquired Apraxia of Speech (AOS) and Developmental Apraxia of Speech (DAS) include inconsistent articulatory errors, groping oral movements to locate the correct articulatory position, and increasing errors with increasing word and phrase length. AOS often co-occurs with Oral Apraxia (during both speech and non-speech movements) and Limb Apraxia.
Generally, treatment for individuals with apraxia includes physical therapy, occupational therapy or speech therapy. If apraxia is a symptom of another disorder, the underlying disorder should be treated.
The prognosis for individuals with apraxia varies, With therapy, some patients improve significantly, while others may show very little improvement.
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