Find information on thousands of medical conditions and prescription drugs.

Brugada syndrome

The Brugada syndrome is a genetic disease that is manifest by abnormal electrocardiogram (ECG) findings and an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. It is also known as Sudden Unexpected Death Syndrome1 (SUDS), and is the most common cause of death in the young in Thailand and Laos2. more...

Bacterial endocarditis
Bacterial food poisoning
Bacterial meningitis
Bacterial pneumonia
Bangstad syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome
Barrett syndrome
Barth syndrome
Basal cell carcinoma
Batten disease
Becker's muscular dystrophy
Becker's nevus
Behcet syndrome
Behr syndrome
Bell's palsy
Benign congenital hypotonia
Benign essential tremor...
Benign fasciculation...
Benign paroxysmal...
Berdon syndrome
Berger disease
Bicuspid aortic valve
Biliary atresia
Binswanger's disease
Biotinidase deficiency
Bipolar disorder
Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome
Bloom syndrome
Blue diaper syndrome
Blue rubber bleb nevus
Body dysmorphic disorder
Bourneville's disease
Bowen's disease
Brachydactyly type a1
Bright's disease
Brittle bone disease
Bronchiolotis obliterans...
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia
Brown-Sequard syndrome
Brugada syndrome
Bubonic plague
Budd-Chiari syndrome
Buerger's disease
Bulimia nervosa
Bullous pemphigoid
Burkitt's lymphoma
Cavernous angioma

First described in 19923, the Brugada syndrome causes sudden death by causing ventricular fibrillation (a lethal arrhythmia) in the heart.

Genetics and pathophysiology

Brugada syndrome is due to a mutation in the gene that encodes for the sodium ion channel in the cell membranes of the muscle cells of the heart (the myocytes). The gene, named SCN5A, is located on the short arm of the third chromosome (3p21). This condition is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern.


In some cases, the disease can be detected by observing characteristic patterns on an electrocardiogram, which may be present all the time, or might be elicited by the administration of particular drugs. The pattern seen on the ECG is persistent ST elevations in the electrocardiographic leadsV1-V3 with a right bundle branch block (RBBB) appearance with or without the terminal S waves in the lateral leads that are associated with a typical RBBB. A prolongation of the PR interval (a conduction disturbance in the heart) is also frequently seen.


The cause of death in Brugada syndrome is ventricular fibrillation. While there is no treatment modality that prevents ventricular fibrillation from occurring in this syndrome, treatment lies in termination of this lethal arrhythmia before it causes death. This is done via implantation of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD), which continuously monitors the heart rhythm and will defibrillate an individual if ventricular fibrillation is noted.


[List your site here Free!]

Atrial Overdrive Pacing in Patients with Sleep Apnea with Implanted Pacemaker
From American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 7/1/05 by Lüthje, Lars

Rationale: Atrial overdrive pacing markedly improved sleep-disordered breathing in a recent study. Objectives: Using a single-blind, randomized, crossover design, we aimed to reproduce these findings and investigate the possible underlying mechanisms. Methods: Twenty ambulatory patients with an implanted pacemaker or cardioverter defibrillator were studied by polysomnography on 3 consecutive nights in a randomized, single-blind, crossover study in which devices were programmed for nonpacing or for overdrive pacing at 7 or 15 beats/minute faster than the mean nocturnal heart rate. Ventilation and biomarkers (urinary norepinephrine excretion, amino-terminal portion of the precursor of brain natriuretic peptide, or NT-proBNP, were also evaluated. Measurements and Main Results: Neither the primary endpoint apnea-hypopnea index, nor the apnea index, oxygen desaturation, ventilation, or biomarkers were affected by the nocturnal atrial overdrive pacing. A small, clinically insignificant, rate-dependent reduction in the hypopnea index was evoked by pacing (nonpacing, 13.4 ± 1.4; pacing 7, 12.9 ± 1.4; pacing 15, 10.9 ± 1.0; p

Keywords: pacing; randomized trial; sleep apnea

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has a high prevalence within the general population, which will rise further given the obesity epidemic at hand (1). OSA is associated with arterial hypertension and increased cardiovascular morbidity (2-4). Continuous positive airway pressure is an effective therapy for OSA. However, this therapy is often difficult to tolerate, and patients frequently slop using it because of discomfort. The nasal mask interface may cause pressure sores, claustrophobia, nasal congestion, and other side effects that lead to suboptimal compliance (5-7).

The finding that atrial overdrive pacing reduces the number of central sleep apnea and OSA episodes by approximately 50% (8) is tantalizing, because it might give rise to a new therapeutic concept (9). Two key underlying mechanisms of the effect of atrial overdrive pacing in sleep apnea have been suggested: (1) overdrive pacing can improve cardiac output (10) as well as pulmonary congestion and thereby reduce hyperventilation and central apneas (11) and (2) overdrive pacing counteracts nocturnal hypervagotonia by influencing cardiac vagal or sympathetic afferent neurons, thus affecting ventilation and stabilizing respiration (11). However, these concepts have not been proven (9).

Biomarkers of neurohumoral activation, such as plasma and urinary norepinephrine as well as brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) plasma concentration, are elevated in OSA (12-14) and are inversely correlated with left ventricular function and prognosis in patients with heart failure (15, 16). It is possible that the increase in heart rate caused by overdrive pacing impacts on systolic or diastolic left ventricular function and thus on these biomarkers.

Garrigue and colleagues (8) performed atrial overdrive pacing with a rate that was arbitrarily set at 15 beats/minute faster than the mean nocturnal heart rate. It remains to be investigated whether overdrive pacing at a lower rate has the same beneficial effect on sleep-disordered breathing.

Using a single-blind, randomized, crossover design, we investigated the effects of nocturnal atrial overdrive pacing on sleep-disordered breathing, minute ventilation, and biomarkers in patients with an implanted pacemaker (PM) or implanted cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). Overdrive pacing was performed with a rate of 7 as well as 15 beats/minute faster than the mean nocturnal heart rate. Some of the results of these studies have been previously reported in the form of abstracts (17, 18).


Patient Selection

Patients in our outpatient clinic with PMs and ICDs with stable sinus rhythm and a dual-chamber device implanted were screened for sleep apnca with an ambulatory device (Somnocheck Effort; Weinmann, Hamburg, Germany), regardless of any symploms suggestive of sleep apnea. To evaluate the mean nocturnal heart rate by Holler ECO. the PM/ICD was programmed to 40 beats/minute (dual-chamber AV synchronous sensing and pacing). The inclusion criterion was an apncahypopnca index (AHI) greater than 15/hour with associated oxygen desaturations of more than 4%. The exclusion criteria were as follows: chronic atrial arrhythmias, myocardial infarction within 1 month of the study, decompensated heart failure, and age groups younger than 18 years or older than 75 years. Written, informed consent was obtained from each patient, and the study was approved by the University of Gottingen Institutional Review Board.


Patients underwent full-night polysomnography for 3 consecutive nights in a randomized single-blind crossover design. In the 3 nights, the PM/ICD was programmed either to a backup rate of 40 beats/minute (nonpacing) or to an atrial overdrive pacing rate of 7 or 15 (pacing 7 or 15) beats higher than the mean nocturnal heart rate of the screening night. Before the first night, an ECG, lung function tests, and echocardiography were performed. For further information, see the online supplement.


An EEG, electrooculogram, EMG, and ECG were recorded as previously described (19). Airflow was recorded by nasal pressure, whereas thorax and abdominal wall motion was monitored by Respitrace (Ambulatory Monitoring Inc., Ardsley, NY), as detailed later. Arterial oxygen saturation (Sa^sub O^sub 2^^) was measured transcutaneously by pulse oximetry (Healthdyne Technologies, Inc., Marietta, GA). The polysomnogram was visually analyzed with a computer system (ALICE IV; Heinen and Lowenstein, Bad Ems, Germany) as already described. An apnea was considered obstructive when nasal flow was absent in the presence of abdominal or thoracic movements, and central when movements were absent as well. Central hypopneas were defined as a 50% or greater reduction in VT from the baseline value for at least 10 seconds with proportional in-phase reductions in ribcage and abdominal movements. Obstructive hypopneas were similarly defined, except that out-of-phase thoracoabdominal motion had to be present (20). Sleep stages and arousals were evaluated according to standard criteria (21. 22).

Ventilation, Holter Monitoring, Blood Pressure, and Biomarkers

Respiratory rate and V^sub T^ were registered by calibrated respiratory inductive plethysmography (Respitrace) as previously described (23). Blood pressure was measured noninvasively by sphygmomanometry (Dinamap XL monitor, Model 9302; Johnson and Johnson Medical, Inc., Tampa, FL) once every hour. Blood samples were taken each morning directly after waking. Urine was collected overnight. For details, see online supplement.

Statistical Analysis

Variables are given as mean ± SEM. The primary endpoint was the AHI. Repeated-measure analysis of variance was used for comparison of the 3 nights. For the secondary endpoints (apnea index and hypopnea index), analysis of variance with Bonferroni's correction was applied. If the analysis of variance revealed significant differences, a paired t test with Bonferroni's correction as a post hoc test was performed. Two-tailed tests were used, and significance was recognized at a value of p


Subject Characteristics

From May to December 2003, 655 patients visited our PM and ICD outpatient clinic. Of these, 189 patients were excluded by the age criterion, and 215 patients were excluded because they had a single-chamber device implanted. Of the remaining 251 patients, 130 gave written, informed consent and fulfilled the remaining inclusion criteria. Suspected sleep apnea in the ambulatory measurement (AHI > 15/hour with associated oxygen desaturations > 4%) appeared in 28 cases. Of these, eight patients failed an inclusion criterion or withdrew consent after screening.

Twenty predominately male and overweight patients were included in the study (Table 1). Ten patients had PMs implanted, and 10 had implanted ICDs. Indications for implantation were ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation in nine, atrioventricular block in seven, sick sinus syndrome in three, and prophylactic indication in one patient. An underlying heart disease was apparent in 13 patients: namely, coronary artery disease in 10, dilated cardiomyopathy in two, and a Brugada syndrome in one patient. Diuretics were prescribed to 10 patients, β-blockers to nine, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor antagonists to 12 patients. Amiodarone was taken by six patients, and digitalis by two patients.

Heart Rate

In the pacing nights, an effective stimulation with a significant increase in mean heart rate was revealed by the 24-hour Holter monitoring (Table 2). The minimum heart rate in the nonpacing night was 50.0 ± 3.1 beats/minute; with pacing 7, it was 54.5 ± 2.5 beats/minute; and with pacing 15, it was 60.6 ± 2.7 beats/minute (p

Respiratory Events

The patients suffered from moderate sleep apnea. The predominant type was obstructive (Table 1). The hypopneas were both central (central hypopnea index, 8.2 ± 1.6/hour) and obstructive (obstructive hypopnea index, 5.6 ± 1.1/hour). Central apneas rarely occurred (central apnea index, 1.8 ± 0.9/hour); obstructive apneas were detected more frequently (obstructive apnea index, 5.2 ± 0.8/hour). Pacing did not result in a significant change of either the AHI (p = 0.07, analysis of variance) or of the apnea index. There was a small but significant decrease of the hypopnea index (p

Ventilation, Sleep, Biomarkers, and Blood Pressure

As shown in Table 2, pacing did not affect sleep, nocturnal ventilation, or biomarkers. Similarly, the mean nocturnal blood pressure showed no significant difference.


In this randomized, single-blind, crossover study, nocturnal atrial overdrive pacing did not affect the primary endpoint AHI nor did it improve oxygen desaturation. Nevertheless, there was a significant but minor, and thus therapeutically not relevant, reduction in the hypopnea index. Other novel findings were that higher pacing rates had a stronger effect on hypopneas as compared with lower rates, and ventilation as well as biomarkers were not affected by pacing.

Our results appear to differ from those in a previously published article by Garrigue and colleagues (11), who described a reduction of over 50% in apneas, hypopneas, and oxygen desaturations. These discrepancies might be explained by the differences in patient characteristics. As compared with the study by Garrigue and colleagues, our patients were slightly younger (63 vs. 69 years) and had a lower ejection fraction (47 vs. 54%), and more of them had predominant OSA (18 of 20 vs. 7 of 15 patients) (11). Body mass index as well as underlying heart disease cannot be compared, because these data were not given in the former study. It thus seems possible that the higher proportion of predominant obstructive apneas in our population might account for the differences. Moreover, in contrast to Garrigue and colleagues' population, only 10 of the 20 patients investigated in our study had an indication for device implantation for bradycardia. Accordingly, our patients had a higher mean nocturnal heart rate in the nonpacing night. As mentioned later, a low nocturnal heart rate might contribute to central apnea.

Effects of Pacing on Heart Rate and Hemodynamics

Our knowledge of the effects of pacing dates back to 1871, when Bowditch described the positive force-frequency relation in isolated hearts. Further work with animals and humans clearly revealed improvements in left ventricular contractility and diastolic filling, particularly after atrial pacing (24). However, more recent work by us and others suggests a low or even negative force-frequency relation with impaired left ventricular systolic and diastolic function and calcium handling in older subjects as well as in patients with heart failure (24-26). These findings were independent of the pacing site and thus cannot be explained by pacing-induced ventricular desynchronization. Of note, there are no human studies evaluating the long-term effects of pacing-induced, slightly accelerated heart rates. It is known, however, that increasing periods of ventricular pacing cause increased risk of heart failure, probably from ventricular desynchronization by right ventricular pacing (27). In the study by Garrigue and colleagues (8), the mean nocturnal heart rate was 51 beats/ minute as compared with 55 beats/minute in our patient population. The acute hemodynamic effect of pacing depends largely on the basal heart rate. The same absolute increase in heart rate with pacing will induce a higher increase in cardiac output if the basal heart rate is low as compared with a higher basal heart rate (10). Thus, the difference in nocturnal basal heart rate might contribute to the more pronounced effect of pacing in the study by Garrigue and coworkers. Furthermore, pacemaker implantation in six patients with pronounced bradycardia but normal ejection fraction was effective in reducing mainly Cheyne-Stokes respiration in an uncontrolled case series (28).

Effects on Central and Obstructive Events and Ventilation

When explaining the effects of nocturnal overdrive pacing on sleep-disordered breathing, two key mechanisms linking overdrive pacing with ventilation were put forward (11): (1) Pacing might counteract nocturnal hypervagotonia by influencing cardiac vagal or sympathetic afferent neurons (11). Furthermore, pulmonary vagal afferents to the medullary respiratory control center stimulate ventilation. However, whether cardiac afferents impact on ventilation is unknown (11). (2) Overdrive pacing might improve cardiac function, and thus pulmonary congestion might be ameliorated in patients with heart failure or bradycardia. In patients with heart failure, pulmonary congestion causes activation of pulmonary J receptors, thereby inducing hyperventilation with hypocapnia, and thus destabilizing ventilatory control and favoring central sleep apnea (29). However, in our patients, we were unable to prove the hypothesis that overdrive pacing evokes a significant ventilatory response.

It was speculated that pacing-by impacting on cardiac function and thereby on the ventilatory control loop as discussed previously (30)-might affect predominantly central hypopnea and apnea (9). Recently published data support this hypothesis (31). In our patients, central apneas only rarely occurred. Thus, the effects of pacing on these events could not be clarified. Central hypopneas were more common, but their reduction after pacing did not reach statistical significance. Further studies using more elaborate tools to distinguish between obstructive and central events might verify the concept that pacing reduces mainly central respiratory events. This is of interest because pacing is frequently applied in the aging population where central respiratory events are common (27).


Garrigue and colleagues (11) reported no change in total sleep time, with a clear reduction in the AHI and accordingly in arousals from disordered breathing. Sleep stages and overall arousals were not reported. In our study, sleep stages as well as arousals were not affected by overdrive pacing, thus confirming that pacing per se has no negative effects on sleep.

Neurohumoral Activation

In the present study, overdrive pacing did not influence urinary norepinephrine excretion or amino-terminal proBNP concentration, suggesting that no major negative or positive effects on sympathetic activation or ventricular filling occurred. This is reassuring given the possibility of impaired ventricular function after tachycardia in heart failure or aged myocardium as discussed previously (25, 26). In accord with previous studies, amino-terminal proBNP was increased in our patients as compared with 48 healthy elderly subjects investigated previously in our department (median, 42 [range, 10-118] pg/ml).


Limitations include, first, the single-blind study design. In mitigation, this approach was adopted so as to maximize patient safety. Also, even though the data were obtained in a single-blind fashion, quantification of ventilation, sleep, and biomarkers was made by two observers blinded to subject and intervention (L.L., D.D.). Second, we used calibrated respiratory inductance plethysmography. This method extrapolates semiquantitative measures of chest wall movement to derive quantitative, approximate measures of minute ventilation. In previous studies by others and by our group using the same method, changes in minute ventilation of approximately 15% were detected (23, 32). Thus, we cannot rule out minor effects of pacing on ventilation. More obtrusive methods, such as a tightly fitting face mask, would have been necessary. Furthermore, besides blood pressure and heart rate, no hemodynamic data were obtained; thus, the impact of pacing on hemodynamics has not thoroughly been investigated.


Clinically, the lack of effect on the AHI and oxygen desaturations renders atrial overdrive pacing inappropriate for treating sleep-disordered breathing. Nevertheless, regarding pathophysiology, the heart rate-dependent reduction in hypopneas sheds light on the complexity of the respiratory control mechanisms and mandates further investigation.

Conflict of Interest Statement: L.L. does not have a financial relationship with a commercial entity that has an interest in the subject of this manuscript; C.U.-B. has received a grant from Medtronic, which was unrestricted for performance of the study (16,000 euro in 2003); D.D. does not have a financial relationship with a commercial entity that has an interest in the subject of this manuscript; D.V. does not have a financial relationship with a commercial entity that has an interest in the subject of this manuscript; G.H. does not have a financial relationship with a commercial entity that has an interest in the subject of this manuscript; S.A. has received a grant from Medtronic, which was unrestricted for performance of the study (16,000 euro in 2003).


1. Young T, Peppard PE, Gottlieb DJ. Epidemiology of obstructive sleep apnea: a population health perspective. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2002; 165:1217-1239.

2. Lattimore JD, Celermajer DS, Wilcox I. Obstructive sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;41:1429-1437.

3. Imadojemu VA, Sinoway LI, Leuenberger UA. Vascular dysfunction in sleep apnea: a reversible link to cardiovascular disease? Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2004;169:328-329.

4. Peker Y, Hedner J, Norum J, Kraiczi H, Carlson J. Increased incidence of cardiovascular disease in middle-aged men with obstructive sleep apnea: a 7-year follow-up. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2002;166:159-165.

5. Berry RB. Improving CPAP compliance -man more than machine. Sleep Med 2000;1:175-178.

6. Zozula R, Rosen R. Compliance with continuous positive airway pressure therapy: assessing and improving treatment outcomes. Curr Opin Pulm Med 2001;7:391-398.

7. Massie CA, McArdle N, Hart RW, Schmidt-Nowara WW, Lankford A, Hudgel DW, Gordon N, Douglas NJ. Comparison between automatic and fixed positive airway pressure therapy in the home. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2003;167:20-23.

8. Garrigue S, Bordier P, Jais P, Shah DC, Hocini M, Raherison C, Tunon De Lara M, Haissaguerre M, Clementy J. Benefit of atrial pacing in sleep apnea syndrome. N Engl J Med 2002;346:404-412.

9. Gottlieb DJ. Cardiac pacing-a novel therapy for sleep apnea? N Engl J Med 2002;346:444-445.

10. Stein E, Damato AN, Kosowsky BD, Lau SH, Lister JW. The relation of heart rate to cardiovascular dynamics: pacing by atrial electrodes. Circulation 1966;33:925-932.

11. Garrigue S, Bordier P, Barold SS, Clementy J. Sleep apnea: a new indication for cardiac pacing? Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2004;27:204-211.

12. Carlson JT, Hedner J, Elam M, Ejnell H, Sellgren J, Wallin BG. Augmented resting sympathetic activity in awake patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Chest 1993;103:1763-1768.

13. Somers VK, Dyken ME, Clary MP, Abboud FM. Sympathetic neural mechanisms in obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Invest 1995;96:1897-1904.

14. Kita H, Ohi M, Chin K, Noguchi T, Otsuka N, Tsuboi T, Itoh H, Nakao K, Kuno K. The nocturnal secretion of cardiac natriuretic peptides during obstructive sleep apnoea and its response to therapy with nasal continuous positive airway pressure. J Sleep Res 1998;7:199-207.

15. Cohn JN, Levine TB. Olivari MT, Garberg V, Lura D, Francis GS, Simon AB, Rector T. Plasma norepinephrine as a guide to prognosis in patients with chronic congestive heart failure. N Engl J Med 1984;311: 819-823.

16. Mark DB, Felker GM. B-type natriuretic peptide -a biomarker for all seasons? N Engl J Med 2004;350:718-720.

17. Luethje L, Unterberg-Buchwald C, Hagenah G, Vollmann D, Andreas S. Atrial overdrive pacing and sleep apnea syndrome. Eur Respir J 2004;24:476s.

18. Luethje L, Unterberg C, Vollmann D, Hagenah G, Andreas S, Atrial overdrive pacing for the reduction of sleep apnea severity. Europace 2004;6:118.

19. Andreas S, Clemens C, Sandholzer H, Figulla HR, Kreuzer H, Improvement of exercise capacity with treatment of Cheyne-Stokes respiration in patients with congestive heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol 1996; 27:1486-1490.

20. Sin DD, Fitzgerald F, Parker JD, Newton G, Floras JS, Bradley TD. Risk factors for central and obstructive sleep apnea in 450 men and women with congestive heart failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999;160:1101-1106.

21. Rechtschaffen A, Kales A. A manual of standardized terminology, techniques, and scoring system for sleep stages of human subjects. National Institutes of Health. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office: 1968. Publication No. 204.

22. Sleep Disorders Atlas Task Force/American Sleep Disorders Association. EEG arousals: scoring rules and examples: a preliminary report from the Sleep Disorders Atlas Task Force of the American Sleep Disorders Association. Sleep 1992;15:173-184.

23. Heindl S, Lehnert M, Criee CP, Hasenfuss G, Andreas S. Marked sympathetic activation in patients with chronic respiratory failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001;164:597-601.

24. Feldman MD, Alderman JD, Aroesty JM, Royal HD, Ferguson JJ, Owen RM, Grossman W, McKay RG. Depression of systolic and diastolic myocardial reserve during atrial pacing tachycardia in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. J Clin Invest 1988;82:1661-1669.

25. Hasenfuß G, Holubarsch C, Hermann HP, Astheimer K, Pieske B, Just H. Influence of the force-frequency relationship on haemodynamics and left ventricular function in patients with non-failing hearts and in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. Eur Heart J 1994;15:164-170.

26. Lim CC, Apstein CS, Colucci WS, Liao R. Impaired cell shortening and relengthening with increased pacing frequency are intrinsic to the senescent mouse cardiomyocyte. J Mol Cell Cardiol 2000;32:2075-2082.

27. Lamas GA, Lee KL, Sweeney MO, Silverman R, Leon A, Yee R, Marinchak RA. Flaker G, Schron E, Orav EJ, et al. Ventricular pacing or dual-chamber pacing for sinus-node dysfunction. N Engl J Med 2002;346:1854-1862.

28. Kato I, Shiomi T, Sasanabe R, Hasegawa R, Otake K, Banno K. Yamakawa H, Mizutani N, Kobayashi T. Effects of physiological cardiac pacing on sleep-disordered breathing in patients with chronic bradyarrhythmias. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2001;55:257-258.

29. Bradley TD, Floras JS. Sleep apnea and heart failure: part II: central sleep apnea. Circulation 2003;107:1822-1826.

30. Khoo MC, Gottschalk A, Pack AI. Sleep-induced periodic breathing and apnea: a theoretical study. J Appl Physiol 1991;70:2014-2024.

31. Abe H, Kitamura T, Oginosawa Y, Nakashima Y. Alleviation of central sleep apnea by ventricular pacing in a patient with an implanted cardioverter defibrillator. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2004;27:1447-1448.

32. Xie A, Wong B, Phillipson EA, Slutsky AS, Bradley TD. Interaction of hyperventilation and arousal in the pathogenesis of idiopathic central sleep apnea. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1994;150:489-495.

Lars Lüthje, Christina Unterberg-Buchwald, Dani Dajani, Dirk Vollmann, Gerd Hasebfuß, and Stefan Andreas

Department of Cardiology and Pneumology, Georg-August-Universität, Göttingen, Germany

(Received in original form September 22, 2004; accepted In final form February 25, 2005)

Supported by Medtronic, Inc. (Minneapolis, MN).

Correspondence and requests for reprints should be addressed to Prof. Dr. S. Andreas, M.D., Herzzentrum Gottingen, Abteilung Kardiologie und Pneumologie, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Robert-Koch-Str. 40, 37075 Göttingen, Germany. E-mail:

This article has an online supplement, which is accessible from this issue's table of contents at

Am J Respir Crit Care Med Vol 172. pp 118-122, 2005

Originally Published in Press as DOI: 10.1164/rccm.200409-1258OC on March 4, 2005

Internet address:

Copyright American Thoracic Society Jul 1, 2005
Provided by ProQuest Information and Learning Company. All rights Reserved

Return to Brugada syndrome
Home Contact Resources Exchange Links ebay