Eighty-one cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples mainly from cases of aseptic meningitis and motor deficiency syndrome were sent to the Virology Section of Evandro Chagas Institute, Belem Para, in the period of January 1995 to January 1996 in order to isolate viruses. All samples were inoculated onto HEp-2 cell culture and newborn mice, with negative results. The probability of isolating viruses by these methods is reduced because of the low concentration of viral particles in these specimens. In order to obtain more information about the etiology of these cases, a group of 23 samples were selected to be tested by a more sensitive technique than the virus isolation - the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Specific primers directed to conserved regions in the enterovirus genome were used, considering that this group of viruses is frequently associated with these neurological disorder. The age of the patients ranged from I to 55 years and nearly all of them lived in Belem, State of Para, North of Brazil. Of 15 samples analyzed by RT PCR nine (60%) were positive; of these, 6 (66.6%) had motor deficiency and 3 (33.3%) developed aseptic meningitis. These results show that it is important to investigate enterovirus as cause of these syndromes.
KEYWORDS: Aseptic meningitis; GBS; Enteroviruses
Enteroviruses comprise a major subgroup of the family Picornaviridae and include the polio (3 serotyrs) coxsackie A (23 serotypes). caxsckio B (6 serotypes)i coxsackie Bseoty); echoviruses (31 serotypes) and enterovirus 69-722.
Infections with the Enteroviruses - even the more virulent members of the genus - are characterized by a high proportion of subclinical infections. The clinical manifestations when they occur, range from severe and permanent paralysis, sometimes fatal, to minor undifferentiated febrile illnesses. Clinical syndromes such as poliomyelitis, meningitis, pleurodynia, herpangina, hand-foot and mouth disease, respiratory illnesses, eye disease, cardiac diseases, neonatal disease, gastrointestinal diseases are frequently associated with the enteroviruses"'l.
With the virtual elimination of poliomyelitis, Guillain- Barre Syndrome (GBS) has become the most common cause of acut, generalized paralysis with an annual incidence of 0.75 to 2 cases per 100,000 population 12 . The association of enteroviruses with GBS was reported by URANO et al. ", in 1970, who, analyzing stool samples and cerebrospinal fluid from a 5" year-old Japanese girl, detected Echovirus type 7. During 1990 to 1991, through a national surveillance poliomyelitis program, the Ministry of Health of Paraguay received reports of 50 children with incident acute flaccid paralysis (
Unlike of GBS, aseptic meningitis (AM) is often related to Enteroviruses (EV). Besides polioviruses, several echovirus serotypes, and almost all coxsackievirus of both A and B groups have been associated with the disease. In the sixties the occurrence of an outbreak of AM due to echo 4 and an epidemic of meningitis caused by echo type 6 were reported by HININA et al. and HANNINEN and POLIJONEN, respectivelyl. In 1975, MARIER et al. reported an outbreak of AM among neonates, associated with Coxsackievirus B59. In the beginning of the 80's years, JARVIS & TUCKER' reported one case of meningitis in a young children due to Echo type 7. One localized outbreak of enteroviral meningitis in adults occurred in Finland, in 1985, as described by KINNUNEN et al.'They examined 21 ill young adults and EV-positivity was found in 80%. Studies conducted by BERLIN et al.' in 274 children
In the past decade, the number of studies of AM associated with EV increased considerably, due to the use of molecular technique applied to the detection of the viral nucleic acid. In order to study the enzymatic RNA amplification, ROTBART" selected 20 CSF samples from 20 different children with AM (12 cases) encephalitis (I case) Haemophilus influen-cae type B meningitis (4 cases) and miscelaneous (3 cases). Of the 12 children with AM, all had PCR - positive results. Enteroviral RNA was also detected in the single patient with encephalitis. The others were negative. THOREN & WIDELL", studying CSF and serum specimens from 27 consecutive patients with AM, detected enterovirus RNA in 15 CSF samples by PCR. Acute-phase sera proved positive for enterovirus RNA in 11 patients. Convalescent-phase sera were all negative by PCR. These authors also used the conventional virological procedures and found a correlation of 78% between them.
In Brazil, studies dealing with EV in the etiology of cases of GBS are lacking whereas those related to AM are scarce. GODOY et al.' analyzed 40 clinical cases of AM, all hospitalized in "Hospital de Isolamento Emilio Ribas" (Sao Paulo), during the first semester of 1964. In tO (25%) cases poliovirus was detected. One of these patients was excreting Polio 2 and Coxsackie A 13. The remaining cases were negative. More recently, TAKIMOTO et al." reported a study including 138 AM patients with the ages ranging from 4 months to 57 years, attending several hospitals in Sao Paulo State. A probable new agent was isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid of 35 of 53 specimens examined. Replication of an agent with similar CPE (cytopathogenic effect) characteristics in MDCK cells was detected. Virus-like particles measuring about 40 nm in diameter were observed by negative staining electron microscopy.
The aim of this study is to investigate the etiology of cases of AM and motor deficiency in the state of Pari, Northern Brazil.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
All 81 samples were negative for viruses by the routine cell culture and mouse inoculation procedures. Only 15 samples were available for RT-PCR testing. Table I shows the results of the 15 cases studied by RTPCR. The ages of the 14 patients whose age information was available ranged from I to 55 years (average 15.7). Nine patients were female and 6 male. All samples yielded negative results in cell culture and newborn mouse inoculation, while 9 (60.0%) were PCR-positive (6 with motor disorders and 3 with aseptic n.. ingitis cases). Of the six cases of motor disorders, two were diagnosed as GBS in adolescents (12 y and 14y).
The 6 PCR-negative samples corresponded to three cases of AM and three of motor disorder. Of 6 cases of AM, RT-PCR was positive in 3 and of 9 cases of motor disorder, 6 were positive by RT-PCR. It was not possible to get information about the onset of disease, a date that would be relevant to the analysis of these cases. Figure 1 shows the results of RT-PCR for the 15 CSF samples. All positive samples display bands with the expected size.
While the detection of enteroviral genome in specimens obtained from cases of AM is reported in several studies23.s,14, there are few molecular analyses focusing on motor disorders caused by non polio enteroviruses. Studies performed by RIDING et al.11 showed that of 366 samples tested, 27% were positive by nested enteroviral PCR, whereas only 6% were positive by virus isolation. Enterovirus RNA was detected more commonly in stool samples (38% positive) but less frequently from throat swabs and CSF (26% and 25% positivity, respectively). THOREN & WIDELL 16 reported that, in CSF samples from 27 patients, enteroviral RNA was detected in 15, whereas only 6 patients were positive as based on virus isolation. Considering the positivity rate using PCR, our results were similar to those, since 60% (9/15) of our samples were positive by PCR and none were positive by virus isolation. On the other hand, they differ from results reported by those authors because we did not find any positive results in cell culture, which is not common. In fact the failure rate in recovering EV by tissue culture from patients with apparent EV meningitis is: 25% to 30%". It is likely that negative results through attempts of virus isolation, in our study, could be explained by the methodology used, which differed from that used in the other studies. Our procedures included replacement of the growth medium by the maintenance medium and then inoculation of the sample. In the other studies, the growth medium was harvested, the sample was inoculated and, after at least 30 minutes, the maintenance medium was added.
Although we have analyzed a limited number of patients, our results are of potential importance since they highlights the possible role of enterovirus in the actiology of motor deficiency and GBS in our region. Further studies are needed, however, in order to better understand the epidemiology of these enterovirus-related neurological disorders in our region.
Pesquisa de enterovirus em casos de meningite ass6tica e sindrome de deficiencia motors em Belem, Para, Brash Amostras de liquido cefalo raquidiano colhidas de 81casos (principalmente meningite asseptica e deficiencia motora) forum recebidas na Sedo de Virologia do Instituto Evandro Chagas em Belem, Para no periodo de janeiro de 1995 a Janeiro de 1995 a janeiro de 1996, para investigagdo etiol6gica. Todas as amostras forum inoculadas em celulas HEp-2 e em camundongos recem nascidos, com resultados negativos. A probabilidade de se isolar virus por else m6todo e reduzida devido A baixa concentraqao de particular virais nesses especimes. Com o objetivo de se obter mais informagoes sobre a etiologia desses casos, um grupo de 15 amostras, forum testadas usando a reaqao em cadeia de polimerase com transcriqdo reversa uma tecnica mais sensfvel que o isolamento. Forum usados "iniciadores" especificos direcionados A regiao de sequiencias conservadas dos enterovirus, considerando que este grupo de virus e mais freqUentemente relacionado a desordens neurol6gicas. A idade dos pacientes variou de 1 a 55 anos, e quase todos viviam em Belem, Para, norte do Brasil. Das 15 amostras anahisadas, nove (60%) forum positivas - 6 (66,6%) relacionadas a deficiencia motors a e 3 (33,3%) a meningite asseptica. Esses resultados, indicam a importAncia de investigar enterovirus como etiologia dessas sindromes.
Maria de Lourdes Contente GOMES(1), Helena KOPECKA(2) & Alexandre da Costa LINHARES(1)
(1) Secao de Virologia do Instituto Evandro Chagas, FUNASA, Belem, PA, Brasil. (2) Molecular Virology Unit, Pasteur Institute, Paris, France. Correspondence to: Dr. Maria de Lourdes C. Gomes, Instituto Evandro Chagas, FUNASA, Av. Almirante Barroso 492, 66090-000 Belem, Para, Brasil. e-mail: email@example.com
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