Find information on thousands of medical conditions and prescription drugs.

Infant respiratory distress syndrome

Infant respiratory distress syndrome ("RDS", also called "Respiratory distress syndrome of newborn", previously called hyaline membrane disease), is a syndrome caused by developmental lack of surfactant and structural immaturity in the lungs of premature infants. RDS affects about 1% of newborn infants. The incidence decreases with advancing gestational age (length of pregnancy), from about 50% in babies born at 26-28 weeks, to about 25% at 30-31 weeks. The syndrome is more frequent in infants of diabetic mothers and in the second born of premature twins. more...

ICF syndrome
Ichthyosis vulgaris
Imperforate anus
Inborn error of metabolism
Incontinentia pigmenti
Infant respiratory...
Infantile spinal muscular...
Infective endocarditis
Inflammatory breast cancer
Inguinal hernia
Interstitial cystitis
Iodine deficiency
Irritable bowel syndrome

Clinical course

Respiratory distress begins shortly after birth, and is manifest by a whining noise, flaring of the nostrils and "sucking in" of the chest wall during breathing efforts. The baby may become cyanotic ("blue") from lack of oxygen in the blood. As the disease progresses, the baby may have respiratory failure, and prolonged cessations of breathing ("apnea"). If untreated, the baby's condition may worsen, and death may ensue. Complications include metabolic exhaustion (acidosis, low blood sugar), patent ductus arteriosus, low blood pressure, chronic lung changes, and intracranial hemorrhage.


The characteristic pathology seen in babies who die from RDS was the source of the name "hyaline membrane disease". These waxy-appearing layers line the collapsed tiny air sacs ("alveoli") of the lung. In addition, the lungs show bleeding, over-distention of airways and damage to the lining cells.


The lungs are developmentally deficient in a material called surfactant, which allows the alveoli to remain open throughout the normal cycle of inhalation and exhalation. Surfactant is a complex system of lipids, proteins and glycoproteins which are produced in specialized lung cells called Type II cells. The surfactant is packaged by the cell in structures called lamellar bodies, and extruded into the alveoli. The lamellar bodies then unfold into a complex lining of the alveoli. This layer serves the purpose of reducing the surface tension which would tend to cause the alveoli to collapse in the presence of gas. Without adequate amounts of surfactant, the alveoli collapse and are very difficult to expand. Microscopically, it is characterized by collapsed alveoli alternating with hyperaerated alveoli, vascular congestion and hyaline membranes (resulted from fibrin, cellular debris, red blood cells, rare neutrophils and macrophages). Hyaline membranes appear like an eosinophilic (pink), amorphous material, lining or filling the alveolar spaces and blocking the gases exchange . The blood (which normally receives oxygen from the alveolar gas and unloads carbon dioxide into the alveoli) passes through the lungs without this vital exchange. Blood oxygen levels fall, and carbon dioxide rises, resulting in rising blood acid levels. Structural immaturity, as manifest by low numbers of alveoli, also contributes to the disease process. It is also clear that the oxygen and breathing treatments used, while life-saving, can also damage the lung. The diagnosis is made by the clinical picture and the chest xray, which has a "ground-glass" appearance.


Most cases of hyaline membrane disease can be prevented if mothers who are about to deliver prematurely can be given a hormone-like substance called glucocorticoid. This speeds the maturation of the lungs and surfactant system. For very premature deliveries, glucocorticoid is given without testing the fetal lung maturity. In pregnancies of greater than 30 weeks, the fetal lung maturity may be tested by sampling the amount of lipid in the amniotic fluid, obtained by inserting a needle through the mother's abdomen and uterus. The maturity level is expressed as the lecithin-sphingomyelin (or "L/S") ratio. If this ratio is less than 2, the fetal lungs are probably immature, and glucocorticoid is given.


[List your site here Free!]

Respiratory distress syndrome
From Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine, 4/6/01 by David A. Cramer


Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) of the newborn, also known as infant RDS, is an acute lung disease present at birth, which usually affects premature babies. Layers of tissue called hyaline membranes keep the oxygen that is breathed in from passing into the blood. The lungs are said to be "airless." Without treatment, the infant will die within a few days after birth, but if oxygen can be provided, and the infant receives modern treatment in a neonatal intensive care unit, complete recovery with no after-effects can be expected.


If a newborn infant is to breathe properly, the small air sacs (alveoli) at the ends of the breathing tubes must remain open so that oxygen in the air can get into the tiny blood vessels that surround the alveoli. Normally, in the last months of pregnancy, cells in the alveoli produce a substance called surfactant, which keep the surface tension inside the alveoli low so that the sacs can expand at the moment of birth, and the infant can breathe normally. Surfactant is produced starting at about 34 weeks of pregnancy and, by the time the fetal lungs mature at 37 weeks, a normal amount is present.

If an infant is born prematurely, enough surfactant might not have formed in the alveoli causing the lungs to collapse and making it very difficult for the baby to get enough air (and the oxygen it contains). Sometimes a layer of fibrous tissue called a hyaline membrane forms in the air sacs, making it even harder for oxygen to get through to the blood vessels. RDS in newborn infants used to be called hyaline membrane disease.

Causes & symptoms

RDS nearly always occurs in premature infants, and the more premature the birth, the greater is the chance that RDS will develop. RDS also is seen in some infants whose mothers are diabetic. Paradoxically, RDS is less likely in the presence of certain states or conditions which themselves are harmful: abnormally slow growth of the fetus; high blood pressure, a condition called toxemia in the mother; and early rupture of the birth membranes.

Labored breathing (the "respiratory distress" of RDS) may begin as soon as the infant is born, or within a few hours. Breathing becomes very rapid, the nostrils flare, and the infant grunts with each breath. The ribs, which are very flexible in young infants, move inwards each time a breath is taken. Before long the muscles that move the ribs and diaphragm, so that air is drawn into the lungs, become fatigued. When the oxygen level in the blood drops severely the infant's skin turns bluish in color. Tiny, very premature infants may not even have signs of trouble breathing. Their lungs may be so stiff that they cannot even start breathing when born.

There are two major complications of RDS. One is called pneumothorax, which means "air in the chest." When the infant itself or a breathing machine applies pressure on the lungs in an attempt to expand them, a lung may rupture, causing air to leak into the chest cavity. This air causes the lung to collapse further, making breathing even harder and interfering with blood flow in the lung arteries. The blood pressure can drop suddenly, cutting the blood supply to the brain. The other complication is called intraventricular hemorrhage; this is bleeding into the cavities (ventricles) of the brain, which may be fatal.


When a premature infant has obvious trouble breathing when born or within a few hours of birth, RDS is an obvious possibility. If premature birth is expected, or there is some condition that calls for delivery as soon as possible, the amount of surfactant in the amniotic fluid will indicate how well the lungs have matured. If little surfactant is found in an amniotic fluid sample taken by placing a needle in the uterus (amniocentesis), there is a definite risk of RDS. Often this test is done at regular intervals so that the infant can be delivered as soon as the lungs are mature. If the membranes have ruptured, surfactant can easily be measured in a sample of vaginal fluid.

The other major diagnostic test is a chest x ray. Collapsed lung tissue has a typical appearance, and the more lung tissue is collapsed, the more severe the RDS. An x ray also can demonstrate pneumothorax (air or gas in the area around the lung), if this complication has occurred. The level of oxygen in the blood can be measured by taking a blood sample from an artery, or, more easily, using a device called an oximeter, which is clipped to an earlobe. Pneumothorax may have occurred if the infant suddenly becomes worse while on ventilation; x rays can help make the diagnosis.


If only a mild degree of RDS is present at birth, placing the infant in an oxygen hood may be enough. It is important to guard against too much oxygen, as this may damage the retina and cause loss of vision. Using an oximeter to keep track of the blood oxygen level, repeated artery punctures or heel sticks can be avoided. In more severe cases a drug very like natural surfactant (Exosurf Neonatal or Survanta ), can be dripped into the lungs through a fine tube (endotracheal tube) placed in the infant's windpipe (trachea). Typically the infant will be able to breathe more easily within a few days at the most, and complications such as lung rupture are less likely to occur. The drug is continued until the infant starts producing its own surfactant. There is a risk of bleeding into the lungs from surfactant treatment; about 10% of the smallest infants are affected.

Infants with severe RDS may require treatment with a ventilator, a machine that takes over the work of the lungs and delivers air under pressure. In tiny infants who do not breathe when born, ventilation through a tracheal tube is an emergency procedure. Assisted ventilation must be closely supervised, as too much pressure can cause further lung damage. A gentler way of assisting breathing, continuous positive airway pressure or CPAP, delivers an oxygen mixture through nasal prongs or a tube placed through the nose rather than an endotracheal tube. CPAP may be tried before resorting to a ventilator, or after an infant placed on a ventilator begins to improve. Drugs that stimulate breathing may speed the recovery process.

Pneumothorax is an emergency that must be treated right away. Air may be removed from the chest using a needle and syringe. A tube then is inserted into the lung cavity, and suction applied.


If an infant born with RDS is not promptly treated, lack of an adequate oxygen supply will damage the body's organs and eventually cause them to stop functioning altogether. Death is the result. The central nervous system in particular -- made up of the brain and spinal cord -- is very dependent on a steady oxygen supply and is one of the first organ systems to feel the effects of RDS. On the other hand, if the infant's breathing is supported until the lungs mature and make their own surfactant, complete recovery within three to five days is the rule.

If an air leak causes pneumothorax, immediate removal of air from the chest will allow the lungs to re-expand. Bleeding into the brain is a very serious condition that worsens the outlook for an infant with RDS.


The best way of preventing RDS is to delay delivery until the fetal lungs have matured and are producing enough surfactant -- generally at about 37 weeks of pregnancy. If delivery cannot be delayed, the mother may be given a steroid hormone, similar to a natural substance produced in the body, which crosses the barrier of the placenta and helps the fetal lungs to produce surfactant. The steroid should be given at least 24 hours before the expected time of delivery. If the infant does develop RDS, the risk of bleeding into the brain will be much less if the mother has been given a dose of steroid.

If a very premature infant is born without symptoms of RDS, it may be wise to deliver surfactant to its lungs. This may prevent RDS, or make it less severe if it does develop. An alternative is to wait until the first symptoms of RDS appear and then immediately give surfactant. Pneumothorax may be prevented by frequently checking the blood oxygen content, and limiting oxygen treatment under pressure to the minimum needed.

Key Terms

The small air sacs located at the ends of the breathing tubes of the lung, where oxygen normally passes from inhaled air to blood vessels.
Amniotic fluid
The fluid bathing the fetus, which may be sampled using a needle to determine whether the fetus is making enough surfactant.
Endotracheal tube
A metal or plastic tube inserted in the windpipe which may be attached to a ventilator. It also may be used to deliver medications such as surfactant.
Hyaline membranes
A fibrous layer that settles in the alveoli in RDS, and prevents oxygen from escaping from inhaled air to the bloodstream.
Air in the chest, often a result of the lung rupturing when oxygen is delivered under too high a pressure.
A natural body substance that often is given to women before delivering a very premature infant to stimulate the fetal lungs to produce surfactant, hopefully preventing RDS (or making it less severe).
A material normally produced in the fetal lungs in the last months of pregnancy, which helps the air sacs to open up at the time of birth so that the newborn infant can breathe freely.

A disease of pregnancy in which the mother's blood pressure is elevated; associated with both maternal and fetal complications, and sometimes with fetal death.
A machine that can breathe for an infant having RDS until its lungs are producing enough surfactant and are able to function normally.

Further Reading

For Your Information


  • Berkow, Robert, ed. Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy. 16th ed. Rahway, NJ: Merck Research Laboratories, 1992.


  • American Lung Association. 432 Park Avenue South, New York, NY 10016. (800) LUNG-USA.
  • National Respiratory Distress Syndrome Foundation. P.O. Box 723, Montgomeryville, PA 18936.

Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Gale Research, 1999.

Return to Infant respiratory distress syndrome
Home Contact Resources Exchange Links ebay