Mycetoma is an important parasitic disease in arid and semi-arid regions around the globe. It is found in Brazil, Mexico, the Sahel, in pan-Arabia, and in semi-arid areas of India. It is found as far north as Romania. more...
There are two forms of mycetoma. At the level of electron microscopy the two forms of mycetoma are difficult to distinguish from one another. The two forms of mycetoma are bacterial mycetoma and fungal mycetoma. Bacterial mycetoma is known as actinomycetoma. Fungal mycetoma is known as eumycetoma.
The disease is usually acquired while performing agricultural work. It generally afflicts men between 20 and 40 years old. Most infections appear initially in the foot or hand. The disease is characterized by a yogurt-like discharge upon maturation of the infection. The disease travels via the lymphatic system. Infections normally start in the foot or hand and travel up the leg or up the arm.
The disease is acquired by contacting grains of bacterial or fungal spores that have been discharged onto the soil. Infection usually involves an open area or break in the skin.
Diagnosis of mycetoma is usually accomplished by radiology, ultrasound or by fine needle aspiration of the fluid within an afflicted area of the body.
There are several clinical treatments available for this disease. They include surgery, Ketoconazole, Itraconazole and amputation.
There is no sure-fire treatment available at this date. Nor is there available at this date a vaccine for mycetoma.
Scientists at such institutions as The Mycetoma Research Center at The University of Khartoum in the Sudan are working on a cure.
Species of bacteria that cause Mycetoma include:
- Actinomadura madurae
- Actinomadura pelletierii
- Streptomyces somaliensis
Species of fungus that cause Mycetoma include:
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