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Uveitis

Uveitis specifically refers to inflammation of the middle layer of the eye, termed the "uvea" but in common usage may refer to any inflammatory process involving the interior of the eye. more...

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Uveitis is estimated to be responsible for approximately 10% of the blindness in the United States. Uveitis requires a thorough examination by an ophthalmologist.

Types

Uveitis is usually categorized anatomically into anterior, intermediate, posterior and panuveitic forms.

  • Anywhere from two-thirds to 90% of uveitis cases are anterior in location (anterior uveitis), frequently termed iritis - or inflammation of the iris and anterior chamber. This condition can occur as a single episode and subside with proper treatment or may take on a recurrent or chronic nature. Symptoms include red eye, injected conjunctiva, pain and decreased vision. Signs include dilated ciliary vessels, presence of cells and flare in the anterior chamber, and keratic precipitates ("KP") on the posterior surface of the cornea.
  • Intermediate uveitis consists of vitritis - inflammatory cells in the vitreous cavity, sometimes with snowbanking, or deposition of inflammatory material on the pars plana.
  • Posterior uveitis is the inflammation of the retina and choroid.
  • Pan-uveitis is the inflammation of all the layers of the uvea.

Causes

A myriad of conditions can lead to the development of uveitis, including systemic diseases as well as syndromes confined to the eye. In anterior uveitis, no specific diagnosis is made in approximately one-half of cases. However, anterior uveitis is often one of the syndromes associated with HLA-B27.

Systemic disorders causing uveitis

Systemic disorders that can cause uveitis include:

  • Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy
  • Ankylosing spondylitis
  • Beh├žet's disease
  • Birdshot retinochoroidopathy
  • Brucellosis
  • Herpes simplex
  • Herpes zoster
  • Inflammatory bowel disease
  • Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
  • Kawasaki's disease
  • Leptospirosis
  • Lyme disease
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome
  • Psoriatic arthritis
  • Reiter's syndrome
  • Sarcoidosis
  • Syphilis
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus
  • Toxocariasis
  • Toxoplasmosis
  • Tuberculosis
  • Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome

Masquerade syndromes

Masquerade syndromes are ophthalmic disorders that clinically present as either an anterior or posterior uveitis, but are not primarily inflammatory. The following are some of the most common:

  • Anterior segment
  • Intraocular foreign body
  • Juvenile xanthogranuloma
  • Leukemia
  • Malignant melanoma
  • Retinoblastoma
  • Retinal detachment
  • Posterior segment
  • Lymphoma
  • Malignant melanoma
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Reticulum cell sarcoma
  • Retinitis pigmentosa
  • Retinoblastoma

Read more at Wikipedia.org


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