Find information on thousands of medical conditions and prescription drugs.

XY Female

Swyer syndrome, or XY gonadal dysgenesis, is a type of female hypogonadism in which no functional gonads are present to induce puberty in an otherwise normal girl whose karyotype is then found to be XY. Her gonads are found to be nonfunctional streaks. Estrogen and progesterone therapy is usually then commenced. The gonads are normally removed surgically because they do not function and may develop cancer. more...

X-linked adrenal...
X-linked ichthyosis
X-linked severe combined...
Xeroderma pigmentosum
XX male syndrome
XY Female


The first known step of sexual differentiation of a normal XY fetus is the development of testes. The early stages of testicular formation in the second month of gestation require the action of several genes, of which one of the earliest and most important is SRY, the "sex-determining region of the Y chromosome".

Mutations of SRY account for most cases of Swyer syndrome. When this gene is defective, testes fail to develop in an XY (genetically male) fetus. Without testes, no testosterone or antimullerian hormone are produced. Without testosterone the external genitalia fail to virilize, resulting in female genitalia. Without testosterone, the wolffian ducts fail to develop, so no internal male organs are formed. Without AMH the mullerian ducts develop into normal internal female organs (uterus, fallopian tubes, cervix, vagina).

A baby girl is born who is normal in all anatomic respects except that she has nonfunctional streak gonads instead of ovaries or testes. As girls' ovaries produce no important body changes before puberty, there is usually no suspicion of a defect of the reproductive system until puberty fails to occur.


Because of the inability of the streak gonads to produce sex hormones (both estrogens and androgens), most of the secondary sex characteristics do not develop. This is especially true of estrogenic changes such as breast development, widening of the pelvis and hips, and menstrual periods. Because the adrenal glands can make limited amounts of androgens and are not affected by this syndrome, most of these girls will develop pubic hair, though it often remains sparse.

Evaluation of delayed puberty usually reveals the presence of pubic hair, but elevation of gonadotropins, indicating that the pituitary is providing the signal for puberty but the gonads are failing to respond. The next steps of the evaluation usually include checking a karyotype and imaging of the pelvis. The karyotype reveals XY chromosomes and the imaging demonstrates the presence of a uterus but no ovaries (the streak gonads are not usually seen by most imaging). At this point it is usually possible for a physician to make a diagnosis of Swyer syndrome.


The consequences to the girl with Swyer syndrome of her streak gonads:

  1. Her gonads cannot make estrogen, so her breasts will not develop and her uterus will not grow and menstruate until she is given estrogen. This is often given through the skin now.
  2. Her gonads cannot make progesterone, so her menstrual periods will not be predictable until she is given a progestin, still usually as a pill.
  3. Her gonads cannot produce eggs so she will not be able to conceive children the natural way. A woman with a uterus but no ovaries may be able to become pregnant by implantation of another woman's fertilized egg (embryo transfer).
  4. Streak gonads with Y chromosome-containing cells have a high likelihood of developing cancer, especially gonadoblastoma. Rarely, this can begin as early as a few years of age, so the streak gonads are usually removed by surgery within a year or so after discovery of the diagnosis.


[List your site here Free!]

Coldplay's XY voted best album of the year
From Evening Standard (London), 12/1/05 by ALISTAIR FOSTER

COLDPLAY have cemented their position as Britain's biggest band, with their album XY named the best of 2005.

The recording, which went straight to number one in 28 countries and became the second fastest-selling album in British history after its release in June, was given the award by Q magazine.

Runner-up was Demon Days by Gorillaz, the second-album from the cartoon-hip hop group createdby Damon Albarn of Blur.

Kaiser Chiefs were third with their debut album, Employment, which has sold 2.5 million copies since March.

The Leeds g roup exploded onto the music scene this year with the re-release of a demo single-Oh My God, and went on to perform at Glastonbury and Live8 in Philadelphia.

Kaiser Chiefs frontman Ricky Wilson said: "I'm actually dead chuffed. I would have hoped it would have been in there to be honest - which I know sounds arrogant, but then being in a rock band you have to be arrogant, don't you?

"Glastonbury was a big turning point for us - the first show I didn't get nervous at and the first show I really thought we proved ourselves to everyone that we were contenders, a lot more

than just eyeliner and blazers."

Fourth place went to Oasis's Don't Believe The Truth, which Q said was "their most vital since the Britpop glory days".

In fifth place was I'm Wide Awake, It's Morning by the little- known American band Bright Eyes. The top female artist in the list of 50 top albums was Scottish newcomer KT Tunstall for Eye To The Telescope.

Meanwhile, the Oasis return to form was confirmed with their single The Importance Of Being Idle at the top of Q's 100 Greatest Tracks Of The Year, which were voted for by the magazine's readers. The song topped the singles charts in August. Coldplay's Fix You was in second place and the Kaiser Chiefs took the third and fourth spots with I Predict A Riot and Oh My God respectively.

. The 50 Greatest Albums and 100 Greatest Tracks Of The Year appear in January's Q magazine, out today.


Top 20 albums

1 Coldplay XY

2 Gorillaz Demon Days

3 Kaiser Chiefs Employment

4 Oasis Don't Believe The Truth

5 Bright Eyes I'm Wide Awake, It's Morning

6 James Blunt Back To Bedlam

7 Franz Ferdinand You Could Have It So Much Better 8 Arcade Fire Funeral

9 KT Tunstall Eye To The Telescope

10 Hard-Fi Stars Of CCTV

11 Goldfrapp Supernature

12 Kanye West Late Registration

13 The White Stripes Get Behind Me Satan

14 The Magic Numbers The Magic Numbers

15 Antony The Johnsons I Am A Bird Now

16 Neil Young Prairie Wind

17 Paul Weller As Is Now

18 Jem Finally Woken

19 Eels Blinking Lights And Other Revelations

20 Bruce Springsteen Devils Dust

Top 20 singles

1 Oasis The Importance Of Being Idle

2 Coldplay Fix You

3 Kaiser Chiefs I Predict A Riot

4 Kaiser Chiefs Oh My God

5 KT Tunstall Black Horse And The Cherry Tree

6 Oasis Lyla

7 Franz Ferdinand Do You Want To

8 Stereophonics Dakota

9 Coldplay Speed Of Sound

10 Hard-Fi Hard To Beat

11 Gorillaz Feel Good Inc

12 Foo Fighters Best Of You

13 Razorlight Somewhere Else

14 The Magic Numbers Forever Lost

15 Bloc Party Banquet

16 Green Day Holiday

17 The Killers Somebody Told Me

18 Arcade Fire Rebellion (Lies)

19 Athlete Wires

20 James Blunt You're Beautiful

(c)2005. Associated Newspapers Ltd.. Provided by ProQuest Information and Learning Company. All rights Reserved.

Return to XY Female
Home Contact Resources Exchange Links ebay