Red areas show the distribution of Japanese Enecphalitis in Asia 1970-1998
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Japanese encephalitis

Japanese Encephalitis (日本脳炎 Nihon-nōen)is a disease caused by the mosquito borne Japanese Encephalitis Virus. Japanese Encephalitis Virus is a virus from the family Flaviviridae. Domestic pigs and wild birds are reservoirs of the virus, transmission to humans may cause severe symptoms. One of the most important vectors of this disease is the mosquito Culex tritaeniorhynchus. This disease usually affects people in South East Asia and the Far East. more...

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Severe rigours mark the onset of this disease in humans. Fever, headache and malaise are other non-specific symptoms of this disease which may last for a period between 1 to 6 days. Signs which develop during the acute encephalitic stage include neck rigidity, cachexia, hemiparesis, convulsions and a raised body temperature between 38 and 41 degrees Celsius. Mental retardation developed from this disease usually leads to coma. Mortality of this disease varies but is generally much higher in children. Life-long neurological defects such as deafness, emotional lability and hemiparesis may occur in those who have had Central Nervous System involvement.

The diagnosis of this disease is made by detecting antibodies in serum and CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) by IgM capture ELISA. A vaccine is available but anti-virals are usually ineffective unless administed within hours of being infected, hence treatment is mainly supportive. Japanese Encephalitis is not transmitted between humans. Infection with JEV confers life-long immunity.

Japanese encephalitis is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia with 30,000–50,000 cases reported annually, case-fatality rates range from 0.3% to 60%. Rare outbreaks in U.S. territories in Western Pacific have occurred. Residents of rural areas in endemic locations are at highest risk, Japanese encephalitis does not usually occur in urban areas. Countries which have had major epidemics in the past, but which have controlled the disease primarily by vaccination, include China, Korea, Japan, Taiwan and Thailand. Other countries that still have periodic epidemics include Vietnam, Cambodia, Myanmar, India, Nepal, and Malaysia. Japanese encephalitis has been reported on the Torres Strait Islands and two fatal cases were reported in mainland northern Australia in 1998, the maintanance of spread of the virus in Australia is of particular concern to Australian health officials due to the unplanned introduction of Culex gelidus, a potential vector of the virus, from Asia.

As of September, 2005, a Japanese Encephalitis outbreak is ongoing in India.


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Japanese encephalitis in a U.S. traveler returning from Thailand, 2004
Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is closely related to the West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis viruses endemic to North America. JE virus is a leading cause of
Japanese encephalitis
Japanese encephalitis is an infection of the brain caused by a virus. The virus is transmitted to humans by mosquitoes.
A Hong Kong woman has come down with the first locally contracted case of Japanese encephalitis, an often fatal mosquito-borne disease, in seven years,
A Hong Kong woman has come down with the first locally contracted case of Japanese encephalitis, an often fatal mosquito-borne disease, in seven years, ...
Japanese encephalitis virus in meningitis patients, Japan
Cerebrospinal fluid specimens from 57 patients diagnosed with meningitis were tested for Japanese encephalitis virus, Total RNA was extracted from the ...
Japanese encephalitis immunization in South Korea: past, present, and future
The history and the future of Japanese encephalitis (JE) immunization in South Korea are discussed with consideration of the situation in the year 2000.
Emergence of Usutu virus, an african mosquito-borne flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis virus group, Central Europe - Research
During late summer 2001 in Austria, a series of deaths in several species of birds occurred, similar to the beginning of the West Nile virus (WNV) epidemic ...
Wind-blown mosquitoes and introduction of Japanese encephalitis into Australia - Dispatches
Backtrack simulation analysis indicates that wind-blown mosquitoes could have traveled from New Guinea to Australia, potentially introducing Japanese ...
Encephalitis is an inflammation of the brain, usually caused by a direct viral infection or a hypersensitivity reaction to a virus or foreign protein. Brain inflammation caused by a bacterial infectio

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