X-ray of the legs in a two-year-old child with rickets
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Osteomalacia (pronounced /ˌɑstioməˈleɪʃiə/),is also referred to as bow-leggedness or rickets - taken from the Greek word ῥάχις (rhákis), meaning "spine". It is a disorder which relates directly to Vitamin D deficiency, which causes a lack of calcium being absorbed. Because calcium is an essential nutrient which aids bone rigidity, the lack of it being absorbed into the body causes fragile or malformed bones, which are unable to support the weight of a growing body. more...

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Although osteomalacia can occur in adults, the majority of cases occur in children with poor nutrient intake usually resulting from famine or starvation during early stages of childhood.


Vitamin D is created by the body when it is exposed to UV light, which is more commonly known as being present in sunlight. In 1916, German medical research scientist and pediatrician Kurt Huldschinsky (1883-1940) discovered that exposing patients who had osteomalacia to artificially generated ultra-violet light, or by therapeutically exposing them to sunlight, he was able to yield quicker recovery than other methods, such as supplementation of dairy products within a patient's diet.

Vitamin D3 is produced naturally by the human body on exposure to UVB in sunlight. Vitamin D is also added to milk, milk products, and multi-vitamin pills through a process originally patented by Harry Steenbock. Some people who do not get enough sun exposure, milk products, or green vegetables may also develop the disease. Deficiency of calcium can also cause rickets, particularly in some developing countries where the intake of calcium-rich products such as leafy greens, nuts, and seeds is low.

Hereditary rickets is caused by an inherited disease that interferes with phosphate absorption in the kidney or by Renal tubular acidosis, in which calcium is taken from the bones to counteract acid produced in the kidneys. Rickets can also be caused by certain liver diseases.

Manifestations of disease

Rickets causes bone pain, slowed growth in children, dental problems, muscle loss and increased risk of fractures (easily broken bones). Medical problems seen in children with rickets are

  1. Vitamin D deficiency,
  2. Skeletal deformity,
  3. Growth disturbance,
  4. Hypocalcaemia (low level of calcium in the blood),
  5. Tetany (uncontrolled muscle spasms).

The X-ray, or radiograph, in the article is the classic image of advanced rickets sufferers: bow legs (outward curve of long bone of the legs) and a deformed chest. Changes in the skull also occur causing a distinctive "square headed" appearance. These deformities persist into adult life.

Treatment and prevention

Treatment involves increasing dietary intake of calcium, phosphates and Vitamin D. Exposure to sunshine, cod liver oil, halibut-liver oil, and viosterol are all sources of vitamin D.

Rickets is a severe and prolonged vitamin D deficiency that leads to softening and weakening of the bones in children. Vitamin D helps the body absorb calcium and phosphate, which children need to build strong bones. Good sources of dietary vitamin D are vitamin D-fortified formulas and milk.

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Use T and z scores to talk about bone density
From OB/GYN News, 11/1/05 by Sherry Boschert

SAN FRANCISCO -- Patients receiving bone densitometry should be counseled about their T and the z scores, Steven T. Harris, M.D., advised at a meeting on osteoporosis sponsored by the University of California, San Francisco.

The T score compares the patient's bone mineral density with the mean peak bone density of a 30-year-old person of the same sex and is expressed as a number of standard deviations above or below the young person's density, said Dr. Harris of the university.

The z score compares the patient's bone mineral density with mean peak density for someone the same age, and helps give patients some perspective. "In my consultative practice over the years, I've seen many, many, many patients who have been terrified by being told that they have osteoporosis at age 78 by comparing them to that 30-year-old, and yet who feel reassured when you show them where they are relative to their peers," he said.

Sharing both score types helps give patients a more accurate picture of their bone health. A 55-year-old woman with a z score of -2 has bone density around the lower limits of normal for her age, but her T score would be -3.2 in comparison with a young adult. That patient can be reassured that she's similar to her peers, but should be persuaded that "there is an issue here that needs to be addressed," he said.

That said, the patient with a T score above -2.5 (the cutoff for osteoporosis) can still have a clinical diagnosis of osteoporosis if other factors are present such as atraumatic vertebral fractures.

Getting a z score can be especially motivating because those patients who are abnormal, compared with their peers, need the greatest attention to possible secondary causes of low bone density. "If you see an abnormal z score, it makes you worry that much more about something very unusual going on in that particular patient," Dr. Harris said.

Patients should also be warned that first bone density measurements give a snapshot of the skeleton's current state. But a low T score does not identify the cause of the low bone density, and the patient should not be labeled osteoporosis automatically, he added. Density reports can have a fairly wide margin of error on first-time measurements. In addition, bone density measurements often vary by a few percentage points when done by different machines. Whenever possible, follow-up scans should be performed with the same machine, he advised.

Vitamin D deficiency leading to reduced osteomalacia can produce a low T score that can improve dramatically once the vitamin deficiency is corrected. Celiac disease with malabsorption can lead to a low T score.

Individual T scores for L1-L4 on spinal densitometry are usually aggregated for diagnostic purposes instead of using the individual results for vertebral bodies. The best and worst scores for individual vertebrae should be within one standard deviation of each other. If not, one should suspect an imaging artifact. In these cases, usually the "best" T score is spurious, Dr. Harris said.

It's important to not just read the densitometry report but to look at the scan, he added. A spine with scoliosis, for example, will have changes in facet joints that make the accuracy of densitometry problematic.

Whiteness seen on the L3 and L4 sections of a spinal scan may be due to facet joint sclerosis, skewing density readings. The aggregation of L1-L4 measurements in one such patient produced a T score of-1.7, suggestive of osteopenia. Excluding the L3-L4 measurements, however, the T score was -2.9, in the range of osteoporosis, he said.

On hip scans, check to make sure the hip was imaged in the correct position, with the femoral shaft straight up and down and with sufficient internal rotation on the leg so that little or none of the lesser trochanter is visible.


San Francisco Bureau

COPYRIGHT 2005 International Medical News Group
COPYRIGHT 2005 Gale Group

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