Find information on thousands of medical conditions and prescription drugs.

Buerger's disease

Buerger's disease (also known as thromboangiitis obliterans) is an acute inflammation and thrombosis (clotting) of arteries and veins of the hands and feet. It is strongly associated with use of tobacco products, primarily from smoking, but also from smokeless tobacco. more...

Bacterial endocarditis
Bacterial food poisoning
Bacterial meningitis
Bacterial pneumonia
Bangstad syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome
Barrett syndrome
Barth syndrome
Basal cell carcinoma
Batten disease
Becker's muscular dystrophy
Becker's nevus
Behcet syndrome
Behr syndrome
Bell's palsy
Benign congenital hypotonia
Benign essential tremor...
Benign fasciculation...
Benign paroxysmal...
Berdon syndrome
Berger disease
Bicuspid aortic valve
Biliary atresia
Binswanger's disease
Biotinidase deficiency
Bipolar disorder
Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome
Bloom syndrome
Blue diaper syndrome
Blue rubber bleb nevus
Body dysmorphic disorder
Bourneville's disease
Bowen's disease
Brachydactyly type a1
Bright's disease
Brittle bone disease
Bronchiolotis obliterans...
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia
Brown-Sequard syndrome
Brugada syndrome
Bubonic plague
Budd-Chiari syndrome
Buerger's disease
Bulimia nervosa
Bullous pemphigoid
Burkitt's lymphoma
Cavernous angioma


There is an acute inflammation and thrombosis of arteries and veins of the hands and feet. The main symptom is pain in the affected areas. Ulcerations and gangrene in the extremities are common complications, often resulting in the need for amputation of the involved extremity.


A concrete diagnosis of thromboangiitis obliterans is often difficult as it relies heavily on exclusion of the conditions. The commonly followed diagnostic criteria are below although the criteria tend to differ slightly from author to author. Olin (2000) proposes the following criteria:

  1. Age younger than 45 years
  2. Current (Or recent) history of tobacco use
  3. Presence of distal extremity ischemia (indicated by claudication, pain at rest, ischemic ulcers or gangrene) documented by noninvasive vascular testing such as etc
  4. Exclusion of autoimmune diseases, hypercoagulable states and diabetes mellitus by laboratory tests.
  5. Exclusion of a proximal source of emboli by echocardiography and arteriography
  6. Consistent arteriographic findings in the clinically involved and noninvolved limbs.


There are characteristic pathologic findings of acute inflammation and thrombosis (clotting) of arteries and veins of the hands and feet (the lower limbs being more common). The mechanisms underlying Buerger's disease are still largely unknown. It is suspected that immunological reactions play a role.


Immediate and absolute cessation of tobacco use is necessary to prevent any further progression of the disease. Even a few cigarettes a day or nicotine replacements can keep the disease active. Vascular surgery can sometimes be helpful in treating limbs with poor perfusion secondary to this disease.


Buerger's disease is rarely fatal, but amputation is common in patients who continue to use tobacco. It often leads to vascular insufficiency.


The disease occurs exclusively in tobacco users, so not using tobacco prevents you from getting the disease. Diet has no influence.


Prevalence of the disease has decreases with the decreased prevalence of smoking. It is more common among men. It is more common in Israel, Japan and India than in the United States and Europe. The disease is most common among natives of Bangladesh, who smoke special cigarettes made of raw tobacco (bidi).


Buerger's disease was first reported by physician Leo Buerger in 1908.


[List your site here Free!]

A user's guide to foot screening. Part 2: peripheral arterial disease
From Diabetic Foot, The, 6/22/05 by Neil Baker


This article is the second of a series of three that aims to provide a clear, simple and practical approach to diabetic foot assessment. Each of the three articles will focus upon a particular aspect of foot examination and, although they will appear individually, they should be combined to give an overall approach to foot examinations. This article focuses upon identifying the at-risk foot due to peripheral arterial disease. The intention is to provide a simple guide to foot examination for everyday use by clinicians that is derived from evidence-based literature.


* Peripheral arterial disease

* Vascular assessment

* Type 2 diabetes

* Ischaemia

* Screening


Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) can be defined as lower extremity atherosclerosis (see Appendix 1 for a definition), which is more common in people with type 2 diabetes, as are other cardiovascular disease pathologies (for example ischaemic heart disease, myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular disease), compared with those without diabetes (MacGregor et al, 1999; Murabito et al, 1997). PAD occurs 20 times more often in people with diabetes compared with the general population (Shaw and Boulton, 2001). It has been reported that PAD is the single most likely cause of lower extremity amputations in people with diabetes (Pecoraro et al, 1990; Apelqvist et al, 1992; Bird et al, 1999); and, importantly, it is more rapid in its progression and occurs at a younger age compared with cases of such amputations in people without diabetes (Brand et al, 1989; Strandness et al, 1964).

Pure ischaemia in patients with diabetes is not common; however, the presence of reduced arterial supply in combination with neuropathy (neuro-ischaemia) is common, affecting up to 45% of patients with foot ulceration (Shaw and Boulton, 2001; Thomson et al, 1991). With an ageing population and a rising prevalence of type 2 diabetes, an increase in the incidence of neuro-ischaemic ulcers may be anticipated.

Arterial assessment

Arterial occlusive lesions causing ischaemia vary from aortoiliac disease to multi-segmental diffuse lesions extending to the ankle and foot (Hamy and Allen, 2001). Arterial insufficiency is not always easily recognisable until it is quite advanced.

Arterial assessment should be grounded in a clear knowledge of anatomy and pathophysiology, together with the ability to take a comprehensive patient history. Some basic points to remember when taking a patient history in order to assess the diabetic foot are as follows.

* Always explain what you are going to do to a patient and why. The time spent examining the foot is a golden opportunity to discuss health education and explore a patient's beliefs, understanding and fears relating to diabetes and blood flow.

* Always inform the patient of your findings and what these mean in terms that they can relate to.

* Reduced arterial blood flow results in poor oxygenation, malnutrition and poor healing capacity of the skin.

* Screening for contributing factors, particularly smoking, hyperlipidaemia, hypertension and hyperglycaemia, is essential.

* It is unwise to suggest a diagnosis of PAD based upon one clinical test or observation, such as an absent foot pulse, or cold skin.

In order to undertake a thorough vascular assessment it is essential to have a clear working knowledge and understanding of basic arterial anatomy. Figure 1 illustrates the major arteries of the lower limb, from the division of the aorta into the left and right common iliac arteries to the smaller arteries at the lowest extremity of the foot.


Rationale for vascular assessment of the foot

Why should we regularly test for the presence of arterial disease in people with diabetes? Identification of ischaemia allows intervention strategies to be implemented. These should include appropriate podiatry provision, especially good nail and skin care; targeted education; and, more holistically, a full and prompt review of cardiovascular protection measures such as management of hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, glycaemic control and antiplatelet therapy.

Additionally, if vascular assessment is performed annually in a standardised way, any deterioration in the patient's circulation can be promptly identified.

History taking

Comprehensive history taking is vital to assess the vascular status and general fitness of the patient. General vascular history includes asking about previous heart attacks and angina, other diabetes-related complications (for example, eye disease, renal disease and neuropathy), current medication, and general fitness including exercise tolerance. This is important because many older people with arterial disease have serious co-existing conditions which may influence future decisions about treatment.

Presence of other concomitant risk factors for PAD such as the use of tobacco, excessive alcohol consumption and hyperlipidaemia should be elucidated.

More specifically, history to determine intermittent claudication and/or rest pain should be ascertained as it is important to distinguish this from other pain aetiologies like neuropathy, plantar fascitis, meralgia and Morton's metatarsalgia (Table 1).

Clinical manifestations of PAD

Remember, if the skin looks healthy, then it probably is! When examining feet it is good practice not to be drawn to the most obvious clinical feature, taking time to systematically examine the lower leg and the whole foot making note of any features that may be observed. Only when all of the presenting features are put together should an opinion be reached regarding the status of the patient's arterial blood supply. The most commonly occurring clinical features of reduced arterial supply are discussed below (see also Table 2).

Nail dystrophies

The toenails are generally of poor quality and are either very thin or yellowed and thick. They may be hard to cut or quite brittle and characteristically they are very slow growing. It is not uncommon for ulcers to occur under the nail plate, especially when the nails are thick.

Skin condition

Characteristically the skin condition is very poor with a general loss of substance. This is clearly demonstrated by gently pressing the skin at the end of a toe; in a healthy state the skin will spring back, but, in patients with ischaemia the skin remains depressed. It can be likened to 'a grape that has been in the fruit bowl too long!' The skin may be very dry with hair loss and, not uncommonly, multiple small skin fissures or increased skin creases are observed, particularly in the arch and around the heels.

Callused/hard skin

If one or more calluses are present, they are often very thin and hard, occurring in small isolated areas unlike the diffuse thick calluses seen in patients with neuropathy. Calluses in patients with ischaemia may be described as appearing like 'onion skins'.

Skin colour

The colour of the skin is determined by the amount and condition of the blood flowing through it; therefore it may vary in colour significantly. Generally the skin is more pallid than normal but can range from intense deep pink to dusky red to mauve/purple.

Skin temperature

The skin temperature is determined by the amount of blood flowing through it and, therefore, may vary. This is particularly true during cold or wet weather. Localised areas of increased skin temperature should alert the examiner to the possibility of disease processes such as infection or gout.


The toes of patients with significant arterial disease are often slightly swollen and dark pink in colour, resembling 'beef chipolata sausages'. However, if an individual toe has this appearance and ulceration is present, osteomyelitis should be suspected.

Ulceration and gangrene

Ulceration due to pure ischaemia is nearly always located on the dorsum of the foot and is rare. It is characteristically painful and can deteriorate very rapidly, exposing tendons and bone. The surrounding tissue is very devitalised and the wound base has no substance.

The vast majority of ulcers can be described as 'neuro-ischaemic' and, as their name suggests, have both neurological and arterial components. Characteristically they occur on the margins of the feet, especially around the heels, resulting from skin fissures, or at the sides of the first and fifth metatarsal heads. They can also occur over the dorsal toe joints or tips (Figure 2).

The ulcers tend to have a 'punched out' appearance with thin 'glassy' surrounding callus. The ulcer bases are very frequently sloughy with interspersed light granulation tissue. Characteristically these lesions are very slow to heal and are prone to frequent low-grade infections.

Gangrene is the result of either insufficient blood flow to sustain any life (leading to mummification of tissue, most commonly seen in the digits [Figure 3]) or infection, or a combination of both. In the presence of infection, gangrene can spread to neighbouring toes or through larger areas of the foot.


Vascular assessment

It is recommended that in patients with diabetes an annual inspection of vascular status should involve:

* identification of symptoms related to ischaemia

* examining the foot for clinical manifestations of ischaemia

* palpation of foot pulses in both feet.

Additional tests that may be required include:

* palpation of popliteal and femoral pulses if foot pulses are reduced or absent

* using hand-held Doppler to locate non-palpated pulses

* ankle systolic pressures/ankle brachial pressure indices (ABPIs)

* Buerger's test--elevation and dependency

* toe pressures

* transcutaneous oximetry.


Where possible, one must try to ensure that patients are put at ease, examined in a warm room, and an explanation of what is being done and why given.

It must be remembered that small arteries are very vaso-active and will, therefore, constrict easily and so may affect some assessment tests, especially Doppler signals.

Clinical examination: Pulse

A pulse is a reflection of the pressure wave generated by ventricular contraction and relaxation during the cardiac cycle and is a means of clinically determining arterial inflow to the lower extremity. Heart rhythm and output, ambient temperature and degree of arterial stenosis or occlusion are factors that influence the amplitude of a palpated pulse (Baker and Rayman, 1999).

It is a common misunderstanding that a palpable pulse equates to good perfusion (Andros et al, 1988). Markers such as intermittent claudication and rest pain may be dulled or confused with other causes such as painful neuropathy or spinal stenosis.

Feeling for the pulses

Place your first and second fingers lightly on the patient's skin overlying the pulse site you are examining. You should feel a regular light beating under the pulps of your fingers. If you cannot feel a pulse, move your fingers slightly to the adjacent skin until you can locate one. If you still cannot feel a pulse try the next site and then return to this one afterwards and try again. Reasons for difficulty in obtaining a pulse can include:

* oedema

* poor technique

* abnormal position of arteries

* diseased or absent arteries

* low cardiac output.

In most instances it is sufficient to record pulses as being present or absent, but they can also be further clarified as weak or strong and regular or irregular.

Palpation of dorsalis pedis

The dorsalis pedis pulse is located on the dorsum of the foot running along the lateral side of the first metatarsal shaft at approximately the mid-point (Figure 1; right bottom). This artery is congenitally absent in approximately 10% of the population and may also deviate slightly more laterally than stated above.

Palpation of posterior tibial pulses

The posterior tibial pulse is considered to be more anatomically constant and is usually located just behind the medial malleolus at the level of the ankle joint (Figure 1; right top).

When the foot pulses cannot be palpated, a hand-held Doppler can be used to detect the arteries. Additionally, it is important that if the pedal pulses cannot be palpated, an examination of the popliteal and the femoral arteries should be performed to delineate the level of stenosing disease.

Popliteal pulse palpation

The popliteal artery is located behind the knee in the popliteal fossa and is located just lateral to the midline of the knee. This pulse is not an easy one to palpate and requires considerable practice. The patient should be either seated with legs extended or lying down, with the knee bent to approximateley 60[degrees] and the foot flat on the couch. Hands should be placed either side of the knee so that the fingers meet in the middle at the back of the popliteal fossa with the thumbs gently pressing either side of the kneecap at the front of the knee. In this position the examiner's fingers should be able to feel a pulse, although the fingers may have to be moved slightly sideways. If the popliteal is very easy to palpate and seems wider than a normal pulse it is possible that you are palpating a popliteal aneurysm.

Femoral pulse palpation

As the femoral artery is felt in the groin it is essential that a chaperone is present when palpating it. The artery is located midway along the groin crease and is usually quite easy to feel. The patient should be lying as flat as possible with the legs extended when feeling for this artery. You will also have to press reasonably firmly if the patient is not thin.

Doppler examinations

The use of a hand-held doppler to examine lower limb pulses and particularly to obtain systolic ankle pressures is becoming more commonplace. Doppler signals can be very useful for locating non-palpable arteries, patient education and quantifying disease progression, especially when waveform analysis is performed. Additionally, they can prove a useful surveillance tool following vascular surgery or angioplasty. Many resources have been produced on the use and interpretation of hand-held Dopplers such as 'Dopplers and the diabetic foot' (Vowden et al, 1999) and 'Examination of the diabetic foot' (video; Huntleigh Diagnostics, Cardiff).

However, in brief, a normal Doppler arterial signal should be multi-phasic with three distinct audible components (triphasic signal) relating to forward flow in peak systole followed by reverse flow in diastole and lastly forward diastolic flow. A two-component signal (biphasic), generally loss of reverse flow, is also considered to be a 'normal' arterial signal, but a degree of arterial obstruction may be present. A single component signal (monophasic), forward flow only, signifies a moderate to severe degree of ischaemia. As a general rule if the signal is of low pitch and muffled, significant arterial disease is likely to be present.

Ankle pressures

Using a hand-held Doppler (Figure 4) and a sphygmomanometer an ankle systolic pressure measurement can be obtained. This is achieved by placing a standard arm sphygmomanometer cuff around the ankle, which is inflated after a pedal pulse is identified with a Doppler probe. The cuff is inflated to occlude the arterial signal and then slowly deflated. The point at which the arterial signal can be heard again is the systolic pressure. This is then repeated at the other pedal pulse sites. The brachial systolic pressure is then obtained and divided into each of the pedal pulse values. The figure obtained for each site is the ABPI (Table 3).

Pressure in the toes can also be measured and is considered to be more reliable as they are less affected by arterial calcification. However, this is not easy to perform in a normal clinical setting.

It is, however, important to stress that, although ankle pressures are very useful, they should be used in conjunction with a good clinical examination, especially for referral criteria and as a means of determining likely outcomes of healing (Apelqvist et al, 1989).


Beurger's test: Elevation and dependency

Beurgers test is a very useful clinical method to determine whether there is significant arterial disease, especially if arterial calcification is strongly suspected when calculating an ABPI. The principle of this test is that there should be sufficient pressure within the arterial tree to maintain adequate blood flow through the limb when elevated to an angle of 30[degrees] from the horizontal or 30 cm above the level of the heart. A positive result, signifying arterial disease, is observed when the elevated limb becomes pale and a dusky 'sunset' red when placed in a dependent position. The elevation test can be supplemented by listening to the Doppler signal while elevating the limb. If the signal fades or disappears, some arterial obstruction is present and the lower the raised limb is when this occurs the more significant the disease; this is called the 'pole' test (Smith et al, 1994).

Buerger's test method is as follows.

* The patient is laid as flat as possible.

* The leg is supported and lifted by the examiner either to a height of 30 cm above the heart or to an angle of 30[degrees] from the horizontal (slightly higher if the patient is not laying flat) and held for 2-3 minutes.

* The colour of the leg is observed. If the limb or foot becomes pale there is a reduced arterial pressure and thus restricted flow.

* The limb is then lowered over the side of the couch into a dependent position and observed for colour changes. If a deep red colour is observed in the toes which then spreads proximally, significant arterial disease is likely to be present.

* The time taken for these changes to occur signifies the severity of the disease.

Pathways of care

For suggested pathways of care following lower limb assessment see Table 4.

Once PAD has been diagnosed, patients need to be given clear and relevant advice. Below is some patient's advice that may be useful.

* Never warm feet too quickly.

* Avoid extreme cold; keep legs and ankles warm in the winter by wearing thermal hosiery or long johns.

* Apply emollients at least once daily, massaging well into the skin (not between the toes).

* Avoid slip-on shoes and slippers no matter how soft the uppers may be.

* File any rough edges on toenails and cut them carefully to follow the shape of the end of the toe, if they are not being cut professionally.

* If any cracks to live tissue, oozing around/under nails or between toes are observed seek advice.

* Try to take exercise daily as long as pressure relief is accounted for.


This simple approach to screening for PAD in people with diabetes relies upon good history taking, careful foot observation and clinical examination. It is intended that this article will act as a basis to develop further understanding, skills and expertise to identify PAD as early as possible and help prevent some of its devastating potential consequences in diabetic foot disease.

Appendix 1. Definitions of some common terms.

* Atherosclerosis: A condition in which fatty material is deposited along the walls of arteries. This fatty material thickens, hardens, and may eventually block the arteries. It usually affects large and medium-sized arteries.

* Ischaemia: When the arterial blood flow is so reduced that there is insufficient blood to maintain healthy skin vitality.

* Chronic critical limb ischaemia: Persistently recurring ischaemic rest pain requiring analgesia for more than 2 weeks, with an ankle systolic pressure of [less than or equal to]50 mmHg and/or a toe pressure of [less than or equal to]30 mmHg and/or ulceration or gangrene of the foot or toes with an ankle systolic pressure of [less than or equal to]50 mmHg and/or a toe pressure of [less than or equal to]30mmHg (European Working Group on Critical Leg Ischaemia, 1992).

Andros G, Harris RW, Salles-Cunha SX, Dulawa LB, Oblath RW, Apyan RL (1988) Bypass grafts to the ankle and foot. Journal of Vascular Surgery 7(6): 785-94

Apelqvist J, Castenfors J, Larsson J, Stenstrom A, Agardh CD (1989) Prognostic value of systolic ankle and toe blood pressure levels in outcome of diabetic foot ulcer. Diabetes Care 12(6): 373-8

Apelqvist J, Larsson J, Agardh CD (1992) Medical risk factors in diabetic patients with foot ulcers and severe peripheral vascular disease and their influence on outcome. Journal of Diabetes and its Complications 6(3): 167-74

Baker NR, Rayman G (1999) Clinical evaluation of Doppler signals. The Diabetic Foot 2(1, Suppl): 22-5

Bird CE, Criqui MH, Fronek A, Denenberg JO, Klauber MR, Langer RD (1999) Quantitative and qualitative progression of peripheral arterial disease by non-invasive testing. Vascular Medicine 4(1): 15-21

Brand FN, Abbott RD, Kannel WB (1989) Diabetes, intermittent claudication, and risk of cardiovascular events. The Framingham Study. Diabetes 38(4): 504-9

European Working Group on Critical Leg Ischaemia (1992). Second European Consensus Document on Chronic Critical Leg Ischaemia. European Journal of Vascular Surgery 6(Suppl A): 1-32

Hamy SL, Allen B (2001) The role of vascular surgery in the diabetic patient In: Bouker J, Pfeifer EW eds. The Diabetic Foot (6th edition). Mosby, St Louis, 5241-64

MacGregor AS, Price JF, Hau CM, Lee AJ, Carson MN, Fowkes FG (1999) Role of systolic blood pressure and plasma triglycerides in diabetic peripheral arterial disease. The Edinburgh Artery Study. Diabetes Care 22(3): 453-8

Murabito JM, D'Agostino RB, Silbershatz H, Wilson WF (1997) Intermittent claudication. A risk profile from The Framingham Heart Study. Circulation 96(1): 44-9

Pecoraro RE, Reiber GE, Burgess EM (1990) Pathways to diabetic limb amputation. Basis for prevention. Diabetes Care 13(5): 513-21

Shaw JE, Boulton AJM (2001) The diabetic foot In; Beard JD, Gaines PA, eds. Vascular and endovascular surgery (2nd edition). WB Saunders, London, 105-26

Smith FC, Shearman CP, Simms MH, Gwynn BR (1994) Falsely elevated ankle pressures in severe leg ischaemia: the pole test--an alternative approach. European Journal of Vascular Surgery 8(4):408-12

Strandness DE Jr, Priest RE, Gibbons GE (1964) Combined clinical and pathological study in diabetic and non-diabetic peripheral arterial disease. Diabetes 13: 366-72

Thomson FJ, Veves A, Ashe H, Knowles EA, Gem J, Walker M et al (1991) A team approach to diabetic foot care--The Manchester experience. The Foot 1(2):75-82

Vowden P, Grasty MS, Baker N, Rayman G (1999) Dopplers and the diabetic foot. The Diabetic Foot 2(1, Suppl): 16-25


1 Diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease should not be based upon the findings of one clinical test alone.

2 It is important to check that other risk factors such as hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and smoking are being dealt with.

3 Poor arterial supply reduces healing and increases infection risk.

4 Patient examination should be used as a health education tool.

5 Local vascular surgery referral criteria for interventions should be developed with your local surgeons and physicians.


1 When examining feet it is good practice not to be drawn to the most obvious clinical feature, taking time to systematically examine the lower leg and the whole foot making note of any features that may be observed.

2 Ulceration due to just ischaemia is nearly always located on the dorsum of the foot and is rare.


1 Gangrene is the result of either insufficient blood flow to sustain any life (leading to mummification of tissue, most commonly seen in the digits) or infection, or a combination of both.

2 It is recommended that in patients with diabetes, an annual inspection of vascular status should be undertaken.

3 Where possible, one must try to ensure that patients are put at ease, examined in a warm room, and an explanation of what is being done and why given.

4 It is a common misunderstanding that a palpable pulse equates with good perfusion.


1 The use of a hand-held Doppler to examine lower limb pulses and particularly to obtain systolic ankle pressures is becoming more commonplace.

2 Using a hand-held Doppler and a sphygmomanometer an ankle systolic pressure measurement can be obtained.


1 The principle of Beurger's test is that there should be sufficient pressure within the arterial tree to maintain adequate blood flow through the limb when elevated to an angle of 30[degrees] from the horizontal or 30 cm above the level of the heart.

Neil Baker is Diabetes Specialist and Research Podiatrist, Singhan Murali-Krishnan is Specialist Registrar in Diabetes, and Duncan Fowler is Consultant Physician at Ipswich Hospital, Ipswich.

COPYRIGHT 2005 S.B. Communications
COPYRIGHT 2005 Gale Group

Return to Buerger's disease
Home Contact Resources Exchange Links ebay