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In medicine, a myopathy is a neuromuscular disease in which the muscle fibers dysfunction for any one of many reasons, resulting in muscular weakness. "Myopathy" simply means disorder ("pathy" from pathology) of muscle ("myo"). This implies that the primary defect is within the muscle, as opposed to the nerves ("neuropathies" or "neurogenic" disorders) or elsewhere (e.g., the brain etc.). Muscle cramps, stiffness, and spasm can also be associated with myopathy. more...
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Because myopathy is such a general term, there are several classes of myopathy. (ICD-10 codes are provided where available.)
- (G71.0) "Dystrophies" ("muscular dystrophies") are a subgroup of myopathies characterized by muscle degeneration and regeneration. Clinically, muscular dystrophies are typically progressive, since the muscles ability to regenerate is eventually lost, leading to progressive weakness, often leading to confinement to a wheelchair, and eventually death, usually related to respiratory insuficiency (i.e., weak breathing).
- (G71.1) Myotonia
- (G71.2) The congenital myopathies do not show evidence for either a progressive dystrophic process (i.e., muscle death) or inflamation, but instead characteristic microscopic changes are seen in association with reduced contractile ability of the muscles. Among others, different congenital myopathies include:
- (G71.2) "nemaline myopathy" (characterized by pressense of "nemaline rods" in the muscle),
- (G71.2) multi/minicore myopathy (characterized by multiple small "cores" or areas of disruption in the muscle fibers),
- (G71.2) "Centronuclear myopathy" (or "myotubular") (in which the nuclei are abnormally found in the center of the muscle fibers) is a rare muscle wasting disorder that occurs in three forms:
- The most severe form is present at birth, inherited as an X-linked genetic trait, and presents with severe respiratory muscle weakness.
- A less severe form of myotubular myopathy that may be present at birth or in early childhood progresses slowly and is inherited as an autosomal recessive genetic trait.
- The least severe of the three forms of myotubular myopathy presents between the first and third decades of life and is slowly progressive; it is inherited as an autosomal dominant genetic trait.
- (G71.3) "Mitochondrial myopathies" are due to defects in mitochondria which provide a critical source of energy for muscle.
- (G72.3) Familial periodic paralysis
- (G72.4) "Inflammatory myopathies" are caused by problems with the immune system attacking components of the muscle, leading to signs of inflamation in the muscle.
- (G73.6) "Metabolic myopathies" result from defects in biochemical metabolism that primarily affect muscle
- (G73.6/E74.0) Glycogen storage diseases may affect muscle
- (G73.6/E75) Lipid storage disorder
- (M33.0-M33.1) Dermatomyositis, (M33.2) polymyositis, inclusion body myositis, and related myopathies
- (M61) Myositis ossificans
- (M62.89) Rhabdomyolysis and (R82.1) myoglobinurias
- Common muscle (R25.2) cramps and (M25.6) stiffness, and (R29.0) tetany
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|Statins unmasking a mitochondrial myopathy: A case report and proposed mechanism of disease. .(Letter to the Editor) : An article from: Southern Medical Journal $5.95||
||21st Century Complete Medical Guide to Myopathies and Muscle Disorders, Authoritative Government Documents, Clinical References, and Practical Information for Patients and Physicians (CD-ROM) $25.00|
|Metabolic Myopathies $18.00||
||Raising awareness of drinking and disease: groups push to get alcohol on the cancer prevention agenda.(focus) : An article from: CrossCurrent - The Journal of Addition and Mental Health $5.95|
|Investigation of the function of myotubularin through examination of protein-protein interactions and exclusion of MTMR1 as a frequent cause of X-linked myotubular myopathy : (Dissertation) $55.00||
||Studies of Factors in Relapse to Alcohol, Drug and Nicotine Use: A Critical Review of Methodologies and Findings. : An article from: Journal of Studies on Alcohol $5.95|
|Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine : Alcohol-related neurologic disease $5.99||
||Alcohol-related injury in the ER: a cross-national meta-analysis from the Emergency Room Collaborative Alcohol Analysis Project (ERCAAP) *. : An article from: Journal of Studies on Alcohol $5.95|
|Relapse prevention before relapse: an intensified approach. (Addiction & Recovery Section: Relapse Prevention Update) : An article from: Behavioral Health Management $5.95||
||Watch rhabdomyolysis in substance abusers. (Inexpensive Test Available).(Brief Article) : An article from: Clinical Psychiatry News $5.95|
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From Military Medicine,
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EVIDENCE-BASED ANSWER If statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) cause myopathy, the risk is very low (strength of recommendation [SOR]: A). There ...
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Statins and Myopathy Thompson PD, Clarkson P, Karas RH: Statin associated myopathy. JAMA 2003,283(13):1681-1630. Recent evidence suggests HMG-CoA reductase ...
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by Carol Hutner Winograd
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Alteration of tropomyosin function and folding by a nemaline myopathy-causing mutation|
ABSTRACT Mutations in the human TPM3 gene encoding gamma-tropomyosin (a-tropomyosin-slow) expressed in slow skeletal muscle fibers cause nemaline myopathy.
From Biophysical Journal,
by Moraczewska, Joanna