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Hepatitis C

Hepatitis C is a form of inflammatory disease of the liver caused by a virus, the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Almost always, Hepatitis C is spread by contact with an infected person's blood. The majority of the people with HCV infections have no symptoms. Therefore, they are unaware of the need to seek treatment. more...

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Hepatitis C infected 150 to 200 million people around the world and is now the leading cause of liver transplants, and a frequent cause of liver cancer. Co-infection with HCV is common for people with HIV/AIDS and often causes their death.

Signs and symptoms

Acute Hepatitis C

Hepatitis C is one of 6 viruses, called hepatitis A, B, C, D, E and G, that can cause an acute disease lasting several weeks. Most cases (between 60% and 70%), even those that develop chronic infection, are asymptomatic.

For persons with acute symptoms, abdominal pain, jaundice, itching and flu-like symptoms are the most prominent causes for seeking medical attention.

Chronic Hepatitis C

For persons with silent disease, some are diagnosed because of certain medical phenomena associated with the presence of hepatitis C virus, such as thyroiditis (inflammation of the thyroid), cryoglobulinemia (a form of vasculitis) and glomerulonephritis (inflammation of the kidney), specifically membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN). Carriers of the virus may begin to develop symptoms after only a few years. Symptoms, when developed, are variable and dependent on individual carrier. They may include prolonged flu-like symptoms and any combination of the following: body aches, headaches, night sweats, loss of appetite, diarrhea, fatigue, nausea, mild abdominal pain, typically located in the upper right quadrant.


Hepatitis C may be suspected on the basis of the medical history and symptoms, because of abnormal liver function tests or as part of routine blood tests in many situations. Occasionally, people are diagnosed as a result of targeted screening such as blood donation (for which every donor is screened for numerous blood-borne diseases) or as a result of contact tracing.

Presence of HCV is generally screened with serological blood tests, all based on ELISA testing (ELISA-1, 2 and 3 are in use). These tests have a strong positive predictive value for the presence of the virus, but may take 6 months to become positive (seroconversion); in the meanwhile, a patient may have a false-negative result. Confirmation of the presence of the virus is by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rtPCR). This test is more expensive and hence avoided when risk of infection is deemed low. It may come up positive much earlier after infection (sometimes several weeks). rtPCR can also confirm which genomic type (see below) of the virus is present, which may determine the treatment regimen best suited for the patient.


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Management of hepatitis C: evaluating suitability for drug therapy
From American Family Physician, 3/15/04 by Raymond P. Ward

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the most common blood-borne infection. It affects approximately 1.8 percent of the U.S. population (3.8 million persons exposed and 2.7 million persons chronically infected). (1) Most cases of chronic HCV infection have yet to be diagnosed. Therefore, a substantial increase in the number of known cases is projected over the next decade, along with a large increase in the number of patients with complications of HCV infection, such as cirrhosis, liver failure, and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV infection already is the leading cause of chronic liver disease in patients presenting to gastroenterologists, the leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma, and the leading diagnosis among patients referred for liver transplantation. (2)

Because of the increasing prevalence of chronic HCV infection and significant advances in its diagnosis and treatment, this illness has been the subject of several recent reviews (3,4) and a consensus statement from the National Institutes of Health (NIH). (5) This article reviews factors that should be considered in the evaluation of the suitability of HCV-infected patients for treatment.

Natural History of HCV Infection

Acute HCV infection is rarely severe and usually asymptomatic. Although the immune system occasionally eradicates the virus, up to 85 percent of patients develop chronic HCV infection (Figure 1). (1,2) Over time, liver damage and other sequelae increase, and patients begin to have symptoms. Risk factors for more rapid progression of disease include age over 40 years at the time of infection, male gender, and daily consumption of more than 30 g of alcohol. (5-7)


Although most HCV-related deaths occur after the disease has progressed to cirrhosis, (7) patients can have significant symptoms and reduction in quality of life well before that time. (8) Chronic HCV infection also is linked to an increased incidence of several extrahepatic diseases, including renal disease, diabetes mellitus, neuropathy, lymphoma, Sjogren's syndrome, mixed cryoglobulinemia, and porphyria cutanea tarda. (9)

Advances in Diagnosis and Treatment

Over the past 15 years, remarkable advancements have been made in the identification of HCV infection. The screening of donated blood for HCV RNA has reduced the risk of viral transmission through blood transfusions to less than one case per 100,000 units of blood transfused. (10) The efficacy of treatment also has improved. First, interferon was used, then interferon in combination with ribavirin; the latest treatment, a combination of pegylated interferon with ribavirin, is clearly superior to the older regimens and is the current standard of care. (11,12)

The NIH guideline (5) on the management of HCV infection suggests that all patients with chronic infection are potential candidates for antiviral therapy, and especially recommends treatment for patients with an increased risk of developing cirrhosis.

Diagnosis of HCV Infection

A third-generation HCV antibody test (at least 99 percent sensitive, 99 percent specific) is recommended for use as the initial test in patients with clinical or laboratory evidence of liver disease and for the screening of at-risk populations. (5) The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends screening in asymptomatic persons who have any of the following risk factors: history of intravenous drug use, blood transfusion or organ transplant before 1992, receipt of clotting factors before 1987, or long-term hemodialysis. (13) [SORT C: consensus/expert opinion]

The anti-HCV antibody test determines whether a person ever has been exposed to HCV but not the presence of active infection (because 15 to 20 percent of persons who contract HCV spontaneously clear the infection). False-positive results are possible, especially when the test is used as a screening tool in a population with a relatively low risk of disease. False-negative results may occur in immunosuppressed persons.

Active infection therefore must be confirmed by demonstrating the presence of HCV RNA. Quantitative tests detect and count viral loads as low as 50 to 500 copies per mL, whereas qualitative tests detect (but do not quantify) the presence of HCV in the range of 5 to 50 copies per mL. (14) Confirmation of the diagnosis requires only a single positive test showing the presence of HCV RNA. Because there can be a transient decline in viremia to below the level of assay sensitivity, all negative test results should be reconfirmed with another test approximately one month later to be certain that active HCV infection is not present. (5) An algorithm for the diagnosis of chronic HCV infection in patients with risk factors or clinical or laboratory evidence of liver disease is provided in Figure 2. (1,2)


Evaluation of Patients with Chronic HCV Infection


Most patients with HCV infection are asymptomatic, and the diagnosis usually is made after transaminase screening. However, some patients have evidence of advanced disease, with symptoms of liver failure. Fatigue and nausea occur in many patients, but these symptoms are not unique to HCV infection.

An effort should be made to determine the mode and year of infection. The most common ways of acquiring the virus are intravenous drug use and blood transfusion before July 1992. Other risk factors to consider include sexual behavior, occupational exposure to infected blood, body piercing, and tattoos. (5,15,16) The date of original infection, as well as the results of liver biopsy, can be used to make a rough determination of the natural history of the disease in the patient. However, the duration and source of the infection often cannot be determined.


A thorough list of the patient's past and present medical and psychiatric conditions is important because the pegylated interferon-ribavirin combination interacts with many body systems. Conditions that are specific contraindications to this treatment should be reviewed carefully (Table 1).

As many as 30 percent of patients with HCV infection have symptoms of depression, but this condition does not necessarily preclude them from treatment for HCV infection. The severity of the symptoms and their impact on the patient's function should be determined. If the depression is severe or recent, psychiatric consultation should be considered.

Many autoimmune conditions (e.g., systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune hepatitis, psoriatic arthritis) are contraindications to the use of combination drug therapy for HCV infection. Some autoimmune diseases, such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, do not appear to be exacerbated by pegylated interferon. Depending on the comorbid conditions that the patient has, it sometimes may become necessary to consult with a gastroenterologist, a hepatologist or, in the case of decompensated cirrhosis, a liver transplant team.


Several behavioral and social issues influence the decision to treat a patient with HCV infection. Alcohol consumption should be discouraged. The daily consumption of more than 30 g of alcohol (approximately two drinks) in men and 20 g of alcohol in women is associated with more rapid progression to liver failure. (17) Consumption of a minimal amount of alcohol does not appear to be harmful, but there are no clear data on the amount that is safe.

Sexual activity should be reviewed to identify transmission risk factors (e.g., multiple sexual partners) and because of the highly teratogenic effect of ribavirin. All patients must have a fail-safe plan for contraception during treatment and for six months afterward. Active intravenous drug use is a contraindication to treatment, but stable methadone use is not.

Pharmacologic therapy for HCV infection is quite expensive (approximately $25,000 for a 48-week course), but treatment has been shown to be cost-effective.18 The manufacturers of pegylated interferon have assistance programs through which medication can be obtained for uninsured patients.

It is important to review the patient's social support network. Pharmacologic therapy for HCV infection can be debilitating and may necessitate absence from work.


The physical examination should include a search for evidence of liver dysfunction and physical conditions that could be contraindications to treatment. Key elements of the physical examination are summarized in Table 2.


Several laboratory tests should be performed to evaluate the degree of liver disease and determine whether other conditions are present that may be contraindications to treatment of HCV infection (Table 3). (5,11,12,19) Elevated levels of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) indicate ongoing hepatocellular necrosis; however, it is important to understand that AST and ALT levels have only a weak correlation with the degree of liver injury.

In extreme cases of decompensated liver disease, the albumin level drops, the serum bilirubin levels rise, the International Normalized Ratio is prolonged, and thrombocytopenia may indicate portal hypertension. Testing for thrombocytopenia in conjunction with determination of an elevated AST/ALT ratio is a fairly accurate and noninvasive way to identify cirrhosis. (20)


The liver biopsy provides the most direct information about the current status of the liver and is recommended in most patients with active HCV infection. (5,19) [SORT C: consensus/ expert opinion] Patients infected with HCV genotype 2 or 3 generally respond well to antiviral therapy and may not always require a liver biopsy before treatment is given.

The two central pieces of information from the biopsy are the degree of inflammation and the degree of fibrosis. Inflammation is scored from zero (no inflammation) to 4 (severe inflammation). The degree of inflammation correlates roughly with the amount of ongoing hepatic injury and the natural history of the disease.

Fibrosis is the replacement of functional hepatic tissue with nonfunctional connective tissue. It is triggered by ongoing inflammation and cytokine-related stimulation of hepatic stellate cells. In chronic HCV infection, fibrosis begins to develop in and around the portal triad and then extends to the periportal area; next, it bridges from one portal triad to an adjacent one, and finally proceeds to a complete circle of fibrosis (or cirrhosis) connecting all adjacent portal units. Therefore, fibrosis is scored on a four-point scale: zero (no fibrosis), 1 (portal fibrosis), 2 (periportal fibrosis), 3 (bridging fibrosis), and 4 (cirrhosis).

Liver fibrosis correlates with the natural history of the disease. Patients who have already progressed to cirrhosis have a lower response rate to treatment and a higher rate of hepatic complications during treatment. The liver biopsy also may detect the presence of other liver diseases that may require separate treatments and could affect the timing of the treatment of HCV infection. For example, evidence of fatty liver, alcoholic liver disease, or hemochromatosis would require consideration of weight loss, alcohol cessation measures, and phlebotomy, respectively.

Patient Education

Patients with HCV infection should be educated about the natural history of the disease and the negative impact of alcohol consumption. They should be reassured that there is no evidence of HCV transmission via casual household contact, including the sharing of utensils or food, hugging, kissing, or breastfeeding. 21 The sharing of razors or toothbrushes should be avoided, because these items may be contaminated with small amounts of blood.

The lifetime risk for sexual transmission of HCV in monogamous couples appears to be less than 1 percent. (22,23) The CDC does not recommend any changes in sexual practice for HCV-infected persons who are in a long-term, monogamous relationship. (13,22,23) Couples should decide whether to use condoms, which may further reduce the already low rate of HCV transmission.

Patients who are considering treatment for HCV infection with pegylated interferon and ribavirin should be made aware of potential side effects (24) (Table 4). (25) Patients should be reassured that adequate support will be provided at the physician's office, and they should be informed that professional support from the pharmaceutical companies is available through 24-hour hotlines. Patients should be directed to reliable sources of information so they can learn more about their condition (see accompanying patient information handout).

Determining Who to Treat

The 2002 NIH consensus statement5 on the management of HCV infection states that all patients with chronic infection are potential candidates for therapy. This is a marked change from the 1997 NIH consensus statement (26) and reflects the availability of more effective treatment regimens and more established treatment expertise.

Important factors to consider include the presence of comorbid conditions that would make treatment dangerous or more difficult, patient motivation and reliability, and HCV viral genotype. Treatment of HCV genotype 1 has a success rate of only 40 to 50 percent, whereas treatment of genotypes 2 or 3 has a success rate of 70 to 80 percent. (11,12) Some patients who are known to have been infected for many years but have minimal hepatic fibrosis and are asymptomatic may choose surveillance rather than treatment.

After a complete evaluation, most patients clearly will be candidates for treatment or have contraindications that preclude treatment. In some patients, however, the decision to treat is not clear based on the work-up alone and must be made on an individual basis. Table 5 presents three clinical scenarios highlighting several factors that must be considered in deciding whether to treat a patient who has chronic HCV infection.

Treatment of HCV Infection

In the initial evaluation of patients with HCV infection, it is important to consider the history, physical examination, and laboratory work-up, as well as the patient's social situation. Providing treatment for patients with HCV requires that the physician and office personnel be familiar with the side effects of the medications and able to provide close follow-up during therapy. Currently, most patients with HCV infection who are candidates for treatment are referred to a subspecialist. However, with the increasing prevalence of HCV infection, more family physicians may be treating uncomplicated cases, with adequate back-up from an appropriate subspecialist.

The authors indicate that they do not have any conflicts of interest. Sources of funding: none reported.


(1.) Alter MJ, Kruszon-Moran D, Nainan OV, McQuillan GM, Gao F, Moyer LA, et al. The prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in the United States, 1988 through 1994. N Engl J Med 1999;341:556-62.

(2.) Alter MJ. Epidemiology of hepatitis C. Hepatology 1997;26(3 suppl 1):62S-5S.

(3.) Lauer GM, Walker BD. Hepatitis C virus infection. N Engl J Med 2001;345:41-52.

(4.) Herrine SK. Approach to the patient with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Ann Intern Med 2002; 136:747-57.

(5.) Management of hepatitis C: 2002. NIH Consens State Sci Statement 2002;19:1-46.

(6.) Poynard T, Bedossa P, Opolon P. Natural history of liver fibrosis progression in patients with chronic hepatitis C. The OBSVIRC, METAVIR, CLINIVIR, and DOSVIRC groups. Lancet 1997;349:825-32.

(7.) Niederau C, Lange S, Heintges T, Erhardt A, Buschkamp M, Hurter D, et al. Prognosis of chronic hepatitis C: results of a large, prospective cohort study. Hepatology 1998;28:1687-95.

(8.) Foster GR, Goldin RD, Thomas HC. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection causes a significant reduction in quality of life in the absence of cirrhosis. Hepatology 1998;27:209-12.

(9.) Mayo MJ. Extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis C infection. Am J Med Sci 2003;325:135-48.

(10.) Velati C, Romano L, Baruffi L, Pappalettera M, Carreri V, Zanetti AR. Residual risk of transfusion-transmitted HCV and HIV infections by antibody-screened blood in Italy. Transfusion 2002;42:989-93.

(11.) Fried MW, Shiffman ML, Reddy KR, Smith C, Marinos G, Goncales FL Jr, et al. Peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C virus infection. N Engl J Med 2002;347:975-82.

(12.) Manns MP, McHutchison JG, Gordon SC, Rustgi VK, Shiffman M, Reindollar R, et al. Peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin compared with interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin for initial treatment of chronic hepatitis C: a randomised trial. Lancet 2001;358:958-65.

(13.) Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines 2002. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. MMWR Recomm Rep 2002;51(RR-6):64-6.

(14.) Pawlotsky JM. Molecular diagnosis of viral hepatitis. Gastroenterology 2002;122:1554-68.

(15.) Conry-Cantilena C, VanRaden M, Gibble J, Melpolder J, Shakil AO, Viladomiu L, et al. Routes of infection, viremia, and liver disease in blood donors found to have hepatitis C virus infection. N Engl J Med 1996;334:1691-6.

(16.) Williams I. Epidemiology of hepatitis C in the United States. Am J Med 1999;107:2S-9S. (17.) Day CP. Heavy drinking greatly increases the risk of cirrhosis in patients with HCV hepatitis. Gut 2001; 49:750-1.

(18.) Wong JB, Koff RS. Watchful waiting with periodic liver biopsy versus immediate empirical therapy for histologically mild chronic hepatitis C. A cost-effectiveness analysis. Ann Intern Med 2000;133:665-75.

(19.) Booth JC, O'Grady J, Neuberger J, the Royal College of Physicians of London, and the British Society of Gastroenterology. Clinical guidelines on the management of hepatitis C. Gut 2001;49(suppl 1):I1-21.

(20.) Giannini E, Risso D, Botta F, Chiarbonello B, Fasoli A, Malfatti F, et al. Validity and clinical utility of the aspartate aminotransferase-alanine aminotransferase ratio in assessing disease severity and prognosis in patients with hepatitis C virus-related chronic liver disease. Arch Intern Med 2003;163:218-24.

(21.) ACOG committee opinion. Breastfeeding and the risk of hepatitis C virus transmission. No. 220, August 1999. Committee on Obstetric Practice. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1999;66:307-8.

(22.) Chiaramonte M, Stroffolini T, Lorenzoni U, Minniti F, Conti S, Floreani A, et al. Risk factors in community-acquired chronic hepatitis C virus infection: a case-control study in Italy. J Hepatol 1996;24:129-34.

(23.) Rooney G, Gilson RJ. Sexual transmission of hepatitis C virus infection. Sex Transm Infect 1998;74: 399-404.

(24.) Russo MW, Fried MW. Side effects of therapy for chronic hepatitis C. Gastroenterology 2003;124: 1711-9.

(25.) Guiding patients through chronic hepatitis C therapy. Kenilworth, N.J.: Schering Corp., 2002.

(26.) Management of hepatitis C. NIH Consens Statement 1997;15:1-41.

RAYMOND P. WARD, M.D., PH.D., is a faculty member at St. Mary's Family Practice Residency, Grand Junction, Colo., where he completed his residency. Dr. Ward received his medical degree and a graduate degree in pharmacology from the University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle.

MARCELO KUGELMAS, M.D., is a faculty member in the hepatology section of the Department of Internal Medicine at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver. Dr. Kugelmas received his medical degree from the University of Buenos Aires Facultad de Medicina and completed a gastroenterology and hepatology fellowship at the Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.

KAREN D. LIBSCH, M.D., is a third-year resident at the St. Mary's Family Practice Residency Program. She received her medical degree from the University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City.

Address correspondence to Raymond P. Ward, M.D., St. Mary's Family Practice Residency, 1160 Patterson Rd., Grand Junction, CO 81506 (e-mail: Reprints are not available from the authors.

COPYRIGHT 2004 American Academy of Family Physicians
COPYRIGHT 2004 Gale Group

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