Tensilon is the trade name for edrophonium chloride. The Tensilon test is an injection of edrophonium chloride used to diagnosis myasthenia gravis (MG).
Tensilon blocks the action of an enzyme, acetylcholinesterase, an important part of the system regulating neuromusclular transmission. To stimulate a muscle, a nerve cell (neuron) releases the chemical acetylcholine. To prevent prolonged muscle response to a single nerve signal, acetylcholine is broken down by acetylcholinesterase after the muscle is stimulated.
In myasthenia gravis, there are too few receptors for acetylcholine on the muscle. The acetylcholine is broken down before it can fully stimulate this reduced number of receptors, and, as a result, the muscle is weak. By blocking the action of acetylcholinesterase, Tensilon prolongs the muscle stimulation, and temporarily improves strength. Increased strength following an injection of Tensilon strongly suggests a dignosis of MG. The Tensilon test is most effective when easily observed weakness is present, and is less useful for vague or fluctuating complaints.
The Tensilon test may cause heart rhythm abnormalities, especially in those patients with preexisting conditions.
The Tensilon test involves the intravenous injection of a small amount of Tensilon. The needle is left in place. If no adverse reaction is observed within 30 seconds, an additional volume is injected. Results are apparent within one minute.
Before the test, the patient must stop taking all drugs that can inhibit acetylcholinesterase. The referring physician can advise on specific drugs the patient is taking.
The effects of Tensilon subside quickly, and are completely gone after 30-60 minutes. No aftercare is needed.
Atrial fibrillation and bradycardia are possible in sensitive individuals. The administering physician must have appropriate resuscitative equipment available.
In a patient without MG, the Tensilon test will not produce an obvious increase in a previously weak muscle. Some subjective feelings of increased strength are possible but not significant.
An obvious increase in strength in weakened muscles strongly suggests the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis. The effect comes on very rapidly, and fades within minutes.
- a molecule released by neurons at the neuromuscular junction that causes muscle contraction.
For Your Information
- Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America. 222 S. Riverside Plaza, Suite 1540, Chicago, IL 60606. (800) 541-5454. http://www.med.unc.edu/mfga/.
- Muscular Dystrophy Association. 3300 East Sunrise Dr., Tucson, AZ 85718. (520) 529-2000, (800) 572-1717. http://www.mdausa.org.
Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Gale Research, 1999.