Penicillamine chemical structure
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Penicillamine is a pharmaceutical of the chelator class. It is sold under the trade names of Cuprimine and Depen. The pharmaceutical form is D-penicillamine, as L-penicillamine is toxic (it inhibits the action of pyridoxine). It is a metabolite of penicillin, although it has no antibiotic properties. more...

Calcium folinate
Chenodeoxycholic acid
Choriogonadotropin alfa
Chorionic gonadotropin
Clavulanic acid


Penicillamine is used as a form of immunosuppression to treat rheumatoid arthritis. It works by reducing numbers of T-lymphocytes, inhibiting macrophage function, decreasing IL-1, decreasing rheumatoid factor, and preventing collagen from cross-linking.

It is used as a chelating agent:

  • In Wilson's disease, a rare genetic disorder of copper metabolism, penicillamine treatment relies on its binding to accumulated copper and elimination through urine.
  • In cystinuria, a hereditary disorder featuring increased cystine excretion, penicillamine binds with the cystine to make it more soluble.


Dr John Walshe (1956) first described the use of penicillamine in Wilson's disease. He had discovered the compound in the urine of patients (including himself) who had taken penicillin, and experimentally confirmed that it increased urinary copper excretion by chelation. He had initial difficulty convincing several world experts of the time (Drs Denny Brown and Cumings) of its efficacy, as they held that Wilson's disease was not primarily a problem of copper homeostasis but of amino acid metabolism, and that dimercaprol should be used as a chelator. Later studies confirmed both the copper-centered theory and the efficacy of D-penicillamine. Walshe also pioneered other chelators in Wilson's such as triethylene tetramine 2HCl and tetrathiomolybdate (Walshe 2003).


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How to eliminate toxic metals from your body - Medical Journalist Report of Innovative Biologics
From Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients, 6/1/03 by Morton Walker

Interviewed at his treatment facility in Los Angeles, California, acupuncturist and Oriental medicine doctor Timothy Ray, LAc, OMD, described the medical history of his patient and colleague, acupuncturist Robert "Bob" Lithgrow, LAc. At age 52, short and heavyset Bob was affected by acutely debilitating fatigue, suppressed immunity, depression, low back pain, reduced libido, and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Bob swallowed quantities of vitamins, minerals, and other nutritional supplements stocked in his dispensary, but absolutely nothing gave him any relief from symptoms of his illnesses. In fact, the acupuncturist-turned-patient exhibited an inability to respond to remedies of any kind; his body refused to process them. These circumstances continued until by means of lab tests, Dr. Timothy Ray discovered that Bob's blood and urine were loaded with arsenic, mercury, nickel, lead, tin, cadmium and a half-dozen other metallic poisons.

The solution for, Robert "Bob" Lithgrow's toxic metal syndrome came from Dr. Ray's prescribing a concentrated program of broad-spectrum heavy metal detoxification. After 10 weeks on the Ray detoxifying program, the acupuncturist's microgram blood levels dropped in the following parameters: arsenic fell from 100 to 83; mercury from 81 to 36; nickel from 19 to 7; lead from 7.2 to 4.4; tin from 1.6 to 0.7; cadmium from 1.3 to 1. His symptoms diminished markedly.

Today, Bob Lithgrow's heavy metal blood and urine content are normal and all signs of illness are gone. Dr. Ray has, in effect, saved his colleague's life, because body tissue elevations of toxic heavy metals eventually would have killed him.

Lead, Mercury, and Other Heavy Metal Toxins

Are you aware that toxic metal pollution is the most frequent reason for the onset of chronic degenerative diseases and loss of life among North Americans? Metallic poisons are everywhere on the continent, ranging from highly populated cities to the most isolated of rural communities. In the United States, metal toxins arise out of industrial, commercial and home pesticide usage with over 1.2 billion pounds spread around each year. That's an annual exposure of five pounds of cockroach and/or rat poison per United States resident. Toxins from metals are present in smog with each year recording 34.8 million tons floating in the air. Stored as "silver" dental fillings in American teeth is 557 tons of mercury, the most dangerous mineral known to science -- more poisonous than uranium. Each person averages eight amalgam dental fillings which daily leak 120 micrograms of mercury into one's body. And conventional dentists have done infants no favor since during pregnancy most of a new mother's dental mercury is abso rbed by the fetus.

Medical/dental scientists at the University of Calgary warned in 1990 that nearly all babies are now born with heavy metals in their bodies. (1-3) Infants receive metal pollutants in utero from mothers who not only have dental amalgams, (4) they might also drink metal-contaminated ground water, eat mercury-laden fish, spray with herbicides, apply metal-containing household solvents, inhale jet fuel or automobile exhaust loaded with lead, or take in metallic poisons from myriad other sources.

Health problems arising from lead toxicity alone are ubiquitous and deadly for every age group, especially those under age six and over sixty. Men and women exposed to lead saturation typically experience certain early signs of illness: insomnia, headache, intermittent fever, impaired ability to concentrate, fatigue, impotence, skin rashes, and compromised immune function.

Unlocking the Danger of Lead-Based Keys

In San Diego on October 7, 1999, California State Attorney General Bill Lockyer filed a lawsuit against 13 manufacturers of brass keys because the lead content of their products comes off in one's hand. Lockyer's office found that when lead-based brass keys are used as intended -- held for 15 seconds while unlocking a door -- lead in the keys is deposited on the fingers at amounts well above the government-approved safe level. It has been shown that Californians become poisoned by lead when using their keys. (5)

Lauri Bollinger, a health-conscious parent in El Cajon, California, now realizes that she must never allow her toddler to chew on her key ring as had been the mother's custom previously. Every parent knows that babies enjoy putting things such as keys in their mouths. Attorney General Lockyer states that brass keys leave a layer of lead on hands at levels near to 80 times above the 0.5 microgram per-day limit. How much more of this lead gets absorbed through the mucous membranes of a baby's tongue and lips?

Toxicologists caution parents about metallic toxicity for young children. They are much more vulnerable than adults to lead poisoning, which causes decreased intelligence, increased clumsiness, appetite loss, sleeplessness, abdominal cramps, impaired vision, and more.

Neurological Diseases from Metallic Poisons

Thirty years ago the World Health Organization (WHO) warned Western industrialized nations that environmental pollution from poisonous metallic substances is the underlying cause of82% of all chronic degenerative diseases, and today WHO advises that situation has grown far worse. (6) In published reports, numerous medical scientists back up the WHO's warnings. (7-10)

What to Do About Pollution from Metallic Toxins

Dozens of techniques for effective heavy metal detoxification of the body are being utilized by means of physician-supervised Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) treatment methods. Described below are only a few detoxifying techniques which have been proven as worthwhile. Some of them are available over the counter for self-help at home by consumers.

Chelating Agents of Metallic Toxins

The synthetic amino acid ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), along with the substances British Anti-Lewisite (BAL), cuprimine, penicillamine, and lithium carbonate are chelating agents of metallic toxins. Chelation therapy is almost the only means of removing toxic metals from the body and brain. Chelation works by capturing the molecules of poisonous metal into an ionic structure and removing them from the cells, bloodstream, and various storage depots in the tissues. Chelators are those therapeutic chemicals employed by chelation therapists for cleansing a person of heavy metals, toxic metals (aluminum is toxic but not heavy), chemical pollutants (including agent orange), nuclear contaminants, and other impurities. Also metallic toxicants causing the Gulf War Syndrome and inhalants surrounding sites of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks can be removed from the body by chelation therapy.

Particular amino acids, antioxidants, coenzymes, and other nutrients take out complexed heavy metals and toxic metals from human tissues by IV (intravenously), or orally (by mouth). These beneficial substances detoxify the body and brain so that pathological symptoms are minimized or avoided. All of the stored toxic metallic substances can be removed by IV, oral and/or rectal chelation therapy.

Intravenous Chelation Therapy for Metallic Detoxification

Intravenous (IV) chelation therapy is a safe, effective, comfortable, and relatively inexpensive treatment to detoxify and restore blood flow for those people who have a burden of toxic metals in the body. During the IV chelation process, ions of metallic minerals floating in body fluids are captured and bonded into ringed structures by a synthetic amino acid known to holistic physicians as EDTA (Ethylene Diamine Ietraacetic Acid). The metal ions and the injected EDTA chelating agent are eventually removed through two usual waste disposal systems, the urinary tract's kidneys or the gastrointestinal tract's bowel.

Intravenous chelation therapy has been known but insufficiently utilized by organized medicine worldwide for over 50 years. By now, about 7 million Canadians and Americans have benefitted from the treatment. A usual series of 20 chelation IVs are administered. Mound the world, approximately 78 million IV EDTA infusions have been administered by chelating physicians who are members of the American College for Advancement in Medicine (ACAM). For information about ACAM doctors, check with the organization's executive director, Margot Bennett (see the Resource section's contact information).

EDTA intravenous infusions remove undesirable metals from the body and brain such as lead, mercury, cadmium, iron, nickel, tin, aluminum, and arsenic. All metals, even essential nutritional elements, are toxic in excess or when abnormally situated anatomically (such as calcium plaque lining the blood vessels). IV EDTA infusions normalize any distribution of most metallic elements in the body and brain. They improve calcium and cholesterol metabolism by eliminating toxic metal catalysts which cause damage to cell membranes through their production of "oxygen free radicals." Free radical pathology is recognized as the main contributing cause of degenerative diseases such as atherosclerosis, cancer, diabetes, the deterioration of aging, and more. Free radicals themselves are, in fact, the source of tissue degenerations. The administration of IV EDTA helps to prevent the production of harmful free radicals.

Usually, in accordance with the recommended protocol of the American College for Advancement in Medicine, an EDTA intravenous chelation therapy is administered over a three- to four-hour period twice weekly. The safety of chelation therapy is absolutely proven. When properly administered by a physician who is trained and competent in the treatment's use, few, if any, adverse effects occur. Of course, as with any therapy, mild side effects are possible. Vein irritation, slight pain, headache and fatigue may occur. Occasionally a transient fever appears. These and other possible side effects, if they happen, are easily controlled by adjusting the duration and frequency of treatment, or with the use of other simple measures. Side effects tend to diminish after the first few chelating treatments. Most patients hardly ever experience them.

Patients taking the IV treatment for ridding themselves of toxic metals routinely report that they quickly experience a reduction or disappearance of their health difficulties. Family friends are often the first to notice and report improvement in the way a chelation recipient looks, behaves, and performs. Comparison of pre- and post-therapy diagnostic tests provide objective evidence of IV chelation therapy's effectiveness.

The Quick IV "Push" for Detoxification

An active member of ACAM specializing in nutrition, diet, lifestyle improvement, and chelation therapy, Henry C. Sobo, MD, medical director of Optimal Health Medical, LLC of Stamford, Connecticut utilizes a quick and effective form of chelating toxic materials out of the body. He takes the treatment himself and administers it to patients. Dr. Sobo points out, "Calcium EDTA in a 1- to 3-minute IV "push" is highlighted by a published study in the Journal of Advancement in Medicine. This study recorded an astounding 91% reduction in the incidence of cancer diagnoses occurring over an 18-year period among patients given the Calcium EDTA push compared to untreated individuals."

Added to his quick chelation therapy push is glutathione (GSH), a tri-peptide formed by linking three amino acids, L-cysteine, glycine, and L-glutamate. "I give GSH because it offers my patients essential antioxidant protection against free radical mediated cellular damage, and it is highly useful for the detoxification of toxic metals," states Dr. Sobo. "IV glutathione in solution with sterile water safely reduces the body burden of metals and provides other benefits for multiple cellular functions as in multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's diseases, Alzheimer 's disease, stroke, and autism, all conditions in which neurons are particularly vulnerable to damage. I administer GSH as an IV push for 3 to 10 minutes." (To receive more information from Dr. Henry C. Sobo, see Resources section.)

Self-Help Home Care Using Oral Chelation Therapy

Oral chelation therapy consists of using certain nutritional agents taken by mouth which act as cellular detoxifiers. They tend to clean out waste products, pollutants, heavy metals, foreign proteins, and other poisonous materials from the body's cells, they do this by displacing toxic substances in the cells, or by diluting the electromagnetic energy stored in destructive free radicals which have been created by combining reactions within the tissues. Oral chelating agents include antioxidant nutrients, enzymes, pharmaceuticals, metabolic factors, food substances, dietary supplements, herbs, homeopathic remedies, nutritional formulations, specific exercises, and other such ingredients. Over one hundred oral chelation agents and formulas for home use are readily available without prescription and over the counter."

The vitamins A, C, and E, Lactobacillus acidophilus and other probiotics, the mineral selenium, the sulfhydryl amino acids Lcysteine, cystine, and methionine, and the foodstuffs garlic, apple pectin, and fiber are nutrients used for their oral chelating effects.

A natural mineral water named Nariwa[TM] is noted for its detoxification of metallic poisons by the application of chelating magnetism. Nariwa[TM] was discovered rising from the central core of an ancient magnetic mountain in Japan by Yoshitaka Ohno, MD, PhD, of the Olmo Institute, now located in Willoughby, Ohio. (12) The drinking water is bottled and distributed through Dr. Ohno's institute by Howard Reminick, PhD, for sale throughout North America (see the Resources section).

Intravenous chelation physician David I. Minkoff, MD of Clearwater, Florida has formulated a detoxifying dietary supplement which removes lead, arsenic, mercury, copper, antimony, tin, nickel, uranium, and beryllium safely and effectively. This heavy metal detoxifier, which Dr. Minkoff has named Metal-Free[TM], is orally active by being absorbed through the mouth mucosa. Metal-Free[TM] produces little to no side effects from detoxification and contains no drug or alcohol. (13) An official at the metal testing laboratory, Doctors Data, Inc. of St. Charles, Illinois, states: "Dr. Minkoff's product is the only oral detoxifier known that removes uranium from the bloodstream." (For Metal-Free[TM] contact information, see the Resource section.)

Singled out as among the best of combination oral chelators is a series of medicinal foods assembled into a self-administered protocol (treatment program) created by Garry F. Gordon, MD, DO, HMD. Presently a member of the Board of Homeopathic Medical Examiners for Arizona, Dr. Garry Gordon is cofounder of ACAM, founder/president of the International College of Advanced Longevity, and co-author (with me) of The Chelation Answer (see the Resource section).

Dr. Gordon's self-administered protocol for oral chelation therapy to promote longevity consists of 19 herbs, phytochemicals, nutrients, nutraceuticals, enzymes, fibres, probiotics, and more. Except for a few listed with their source below, almost all of the protocol's substances may be acquired from Longevity Plus, Inc. of Payson, Arizona (see Resource section). Ingredients of the Gordon protocol are:

1. Garlic Plus, 2 capsules (caps), three times a day (t.i.d)

2. Pro Algen, 2 caps, t.i.d.

3. ThioGel, 200 mg, 1 cap t.i.d.

4. Beyond Chelation, 1 pack, twice a day (b.i.d.)

5. CoEnzyme Q-10, 30 mg, 2 caps, b.i.d.

6. Carnitine, 500 mg, 1 cap, t.i.d.

7. Immuni-T, 2 caps, b.i.d.

8. Aloe Immune, 500 mg, 1 cap, b.i.d.

9. Beyond C, 1 teaspoonful (tsp), b.i.d.

10. Wobenzym Med, 5 tablets (tabs), b.i.d.

11. Longevity Maca, 1 tsp, 1 daily

12. Libidex, apply 1 tsp, 1 daily

13. Imm-Kine[TM], 1 cap b.i.d. (from Stephen A. Levine, PhD, President, Allergy Research Group/Nutricology, Inc.)

14. Beyond GHS, 3 tabs once daily

15. IGF-1 Plus, 2 sprays, b.i.d.

16. Beyond B-12, 1 sublingual daily

17. Androsome Pro, 1/2 tsp. 1 daily

18. Pure Focus, 5 drops, b.i.d.

19. Perfect Food[TM], 1 tsp. b.i.d. (from Jordan Rubin, NMD, Research

Director, Garden of Life, Inc.)

Rectal Administration of Chelation Therapy

The newest, easiest, most convenient, and efficacious technique for detoxifying heavy metals out of the body is by means of rectal chelation therapy. The method is to self-apply a patented, trademarked and registered, over-the-counter suppository, DeTOXamin[TM]. People exhibiting toxic metal burdens now are able to chelate themselves while sleeping by use of this non-prescription chelator. Merely insert the firm gelatin pill into the rectum, fall asleep, and awaken in the morning partially detoxified. Repeat the procedure until laboratory tests show that there is no more metal poison remaining in the body.

By this suppository method, the main obstacle to intravenous EDTA chelation therapy has been eliminated. Rather than spending three hours or more per infusion session in a clinic, hooked to an IV, you may take less than a minute to rectally insert the suppository of DeTOXamin[TM] at home before bedtime. Since many people cringe at the thought of getting stuck with a needle for twenty or more such IV treatments, use of a suppository eliminates this psychologically stressful and timeconsuming obstacle. Rectal rather than IV administration is less invasive, in no way uncomfortable, and generally preferred. In comparison, the treatment price of DeTOXamin[TM] is half the cost of IV chelation therapy and about the same as oral chelation therapy.

DeTOXamin[TM] is readily available to the consumer over-the-counter and by mail order (see the Resource section) and to licensed physicians as a prescription-strength chelating agent for dispensing from their offices. For adults, each suppository is designed to release 750mg of disodium EDTA, directly into the bloodstream through the colon wall. And the suppository comes in a reduced dosage for children suffering from lead poisoning. It is known to do a highly effective job of heavy metal detoxification.

DeTOXamin[TM] Relieves Macular Degeneration and Glaucoma

In 1997, diagnostic procedures carried out by chelating physician Vladimir P. Shurlan, MD, of Cambridge, Massachusetts revealed that his new patient, Mrs. Anna Siemans, a 69 year-old Boston homemaker, was affected by numerous health problems.

She suffered from atherosclerosis, osteoporosis, hypothyroidism, multiple allergies, fungal infections, colon polyps, and osteoarthritis. What troubled Mrs. Siemans most, however, were two impairments of her eyesight: macular degeneration of the left eye and glaucoma in the right. Her vision loss of 25% caused Mrs. Siemans to be classified "legally blind" by the State of Massachusetts.

Before visiting Dr. Shurlan, the patient had been incorrectly treated for her eye problems with continuously elevated doses of Cipro[R], an antibiotic. Dr. Shurlan, a former practicing ophthalmologist, states, "This Cipro[R] prescription made no sense, because she had almost no infection at all. When I cultured her eyesockets for bacteria, moderate staphylococcus overgrowth appeared on the culture medium but hardly anything sufficient to warrant such antibiotic treatment. She merely possessed calcium in the left eye, and that was the source of her main difficulty, macular degeneration.

"I determined that Mrs. Siemans would respond well to mild but steady chelation therapy for calcium removal, and one technique for such administration is by rectal suppository using DeTOXamin[TM] This product is highly effective with a low cost and allows for convenient application by the patient," Dr. Shurlan advises. "Well, the suppository worked well. By the end of three months of use, her excess calcium had disappeared and my patient resumed reading and writing with no difficulty. She could see well once again.

"Adding to my patient's DeTOXamin[TM] rectal treatment, I prescribed a variety of nutrients as supplements to Mrs. Siemans' food supply. She has steadily improved. Recently when she went to show the local university ophthalmologist her vision improvements, he was absolutely flabbergasted," Dr. Shurlan affirms. "The specialist telephoned me and declared, 'There's hardly ever any positive response with macular degeneration and glaucoma no matter what treatments are employed. So, how did you accomplish that positive change?' I told this ophthalmologist about the rectally-administered EDTA present in DeTOXamin[TM], and today he uses that same suppository as part of his eye treatment too.

"I have designed a protocol for eliminating macular degeneration and other eye problems which my local pharmacy compounds for people who request it, to apply on their own," says Dr. Vladimir Shurlan (see the Resource section).


Timothy Ray, OMD, LAc, 221 Corinth Avenue, Suite 100, Los Angeles, California 90064 USA; 310-473-1813; Fax 310-4733103; no' Email; website:

Margot Bennett, Executive Director, American College for Advancement in Medicine, 23121 Verdugo Drive, Suite 204, Laguna Hills, California 92653 USA; 800-532-3688 or 949-583-7666; Fax 949-955-9679; Email:; Website:

Henry C. Sobo, MD, medical director of Optimal Health Medical, LLC, is found at 122 Hoyt Street, Suite D, Stamford, Connecticut 06905 USA; 203-348-8805; Email:; website:

Nariwa[TM] Natural Mineral Water from Japan's Ancient Magnetic Mountain is bottled by Kenko, Inc. in Okayama, Japan and imported for North American distribution by Howard Reminick, PhD, Nariwa, Inc., 35104 Euclid Avenue, Suite 107, Willoughby, Ohio USA; 440-953-3971. Nariwa[TM] is offered under the sponsorship of Dr. Yosbitaka Ohno's Ohno Institute; 440-953-9035; no Email; website:

Metal-Free[TM] Heavy Metal Detoxification Formula, A Dietary Supplement created by David I. Minkoff, MD, is manufactured and distributed by BodyHealth, Inc., 301 Turner Street, Clearwater, Florida 33756 USA; 877-804-3258 or 727-441-4954; Email:; the Metal-Free[TM] website:

Garry F. Gordon, MD, DO, MD(H), President, the Gordon Research Institute, 708 East Highway 260, Suite C-i, Payson, Arizona 85541 USA; 928-472-4263; Fax 928-474-3819; Cell 928-978-4424; Email:; website:

The Chelation Answer, $21 includes Priority Mail postage, from Dr. Morton Walker, Editorial Director, Freelance Communications, 484 High Ridge Road, Stamford, Connecticut 06905 USA; 203-322-1551; Fax 203-322-4656; Cell 203-449-4583; Email:; website:

The Gordon protocol distributor is Longevity Plus, Inc., Alexandra Vancleve, President, 708 East Highway 260, Suite C-2, Payson, Arizona 85541 USA; product order line telephone 800580-7587 or 928-474-3684; Fax 928-474-3819; Email:; website:

Imm-Kine Formula[TM] distributor, Stephen A. Levine, PhD, President of Allergy Research Group/Nutricology, Inc., 30806 Santana Street, Hayward, California 94544 USA; 800-545-9960; Fax 510-487-8682; website:

Perfect Food[TM] manufacturer, Jordan Rubin, NMD, Founder and Research Director, Garden of Life, Inc., 1449 Jupiter Park Drive, #16, Jupiter, Florida 33459 USA; 800-622-8986 or 561-748-2477; Fax 561-575-5488; Email:; website:

DeTOXamin[TM] manufacturer, Edward J. Salmon III, President, World Health Products, Inc., 3586 West 900 South, Salt Lake City, Utah 84104 USA; 877-656-4553 or 801-983-1035; Fax 801-983-1048; Email:; two websites: or

Vladimir P. Shurlan, MD, 7 Channing Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 USA; 617-547-3249; Fax 617-547-3249.


(1.) Vimy, M.J.; Takahashi, Y.; Lorscheider, F.L. Maternal-fetal distribution of mercury released from dental amalgam fillings. Report issued by the Department of Medicine and Medical Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, FASEB, 1990.

(2.) Lorscheider, F.L. and Vimy, M.J.. Lancet 337, (4 May 1991).

(3.) Stortebecker. S. Mercury poisoning from dental amalgam. Lancet 337, 1991.

(4.) Walker, M. Elements of Danger: Protect Yourself Against the Hazards of Modern Dentistry. (Charlottesville, VA: Hampton Roads Publishing Co., Inc., 2000).

(5.) Rother, C. Danger unlocked: Keys found to leave behind unsafe amounts of lead! San Diego Union Tribune, Oct. 7, 1999.

(6.) World Health Organization Report, Florence, Italy, 1974.

(7.) Casdorph, H.R. and Walker, M. Toxic Metal Syndrome: How Metal Poisoning Affects Your Brain. (Garden City Park, NY: Avery Publishing Group, 1995).

(8.) Cromwell, P.F.; Abadie, B.R.; Stephens, J.T.; Kyler, M. Hair mineral analysis: biochemical imbalances and violent criminal behavior. Psychological Reports 64:259-266, 1989.

(9.) Washko, P.W. and Cousins, RKJ. Effect of low dietary calcium on chronic cadmium toxicity in rats. Nutritional Report International 11(2):113-127, 1975.

(10.) Op. Cit. Casdorph & Walker, p. 192.

(11.) Walker, M. The Chelation Way: The Complete Book of Chelation Therapy (Garden City Park, NY and New York, NY the Avery Publishing Division of Penguin/Putnam, 1990).

(12.) Ohno, Y. & Reminick, H. How the condition of your body's water affects bacteria and its life-long influence on health and aging. Explore for the Professional 10:3, June, 2001, pp. 47-60.

(13.) Minkoff, D.I. Metal-Free [TM] as a simple, effective method of detoxification for heavy metals: An especially revealing case that demands a further look. Explore for the Professional 10:3, June, 2001, pp. 2 1-24.

COPYRIGHT 2003 The Townsend Letter Group
COPYRIGHT 2003 Gale Group

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